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105 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
ad hominem
appealing to feelings/prejudices instead of intellect/reason
adage
saying containing truth based on experience (metaphorical language)
allegory
story w/ second meaning beneath surface
allusion
reference to a person, place, or event meant to create an effect or enhance the meaning of an idea
anachronism
person, scene, event, or element that fails to correspond w/ appropriate time or era
(Columbus sails to United States)
analogy
comparison that points out similarities b/w two dissimilar things
anecdote
brief narrative used to illustrate an idea or make a point
antecedent
a word to which a pronoun refers
antithesis
rhetorical opposition or contrast of ideas w/ grammatical arrangement of words, clauses, sentences
aphorism
short, pithy statement of generally accepted truth/sentiment
arch
characterized by clever/sly humor, often saucy, playful, somewhat irreverent.
archetype
abstract/ideal conception of a type, a perfectly typical example, an original model or form
assonance
repetition of two or more vowel sounds in a group of words in prose or poetry
bombast
inflated, pretentious language
burlesque
work of literature meant to ridicule a subject, a grotesque imitation
canon
works considered most important in a national literature or period, works widely read and studied
caricature
grotesque likeness of striking qualities in person and things
cacophony
grating, inharmonious sounds
circumlocution
"talking around" a subject, discourse that avoids direct reference to a subject
clause
structural element of sentence, consisting of grammatical subject and predicate. independent can be sentence. dependent incomplete
conceit
witty or ingenious thought, a diverting or highly fanciful idea (figurative language)
connotation
suggested/implied meaning of a word or phrase
consonance
repetition of two or more consonant sounds in a group of words or a unit of speech/writing
alliteration
repetition of one or more initial consonants in group of words of poem
critique
analysis/assessment of thing or situation for purpose of determining nature/limitations and conformity to set of standards
deductive reasoning
method of reasoning w/ specific definitions, conclusions, theorems drawn from general principles.
denotation
dictionary definition of a word
denouement
resolution that occurs at end of narrative or drama, real or imagined
deus ex machina
in literature, use of artificial device or gimmick to solve problem
diction
choice words in oral and written discourse
didactic
having instructive purpose, intending to convey information or teach a lesson, usually in dry/pompous manner
dramatic irony
circumstance in which audience or reader knows more about a situation than a character
elegy
poem/prose that laments/meditates on passing or death of someone/something of value
epigram
concise but ingenious, witty, thoughtful statement
epithet
adjective/phrase expressing striking quality of a person or thing "sun-bright topaz"
euphemism
mild or less negative usage for harsh or blunt term
"pass away" instead of "die"
ellipsis
(...) indication of omissions of words in thought/quote
elliptical construction
sentence w/ deliberate omission of words "may was hot and june the same" was omitted from second clause
empathy
feeling of association/identification w/ object/person
euphony
pleasing, harmonious sounds
exegesis
detailed analysis/interpretation of work of prose/poetry
expose
piece of writing revealing weaknesses/faults/shortcomings
explication
interpretation/analysis of text
extended metaphor
series of comparison b/w two unlike objects
fallacy, fallacious reasoning
incorrect belief or supposition based on faulty data, defective evidence, false information
farce
comedy w/ extravagant/nonsensical disregard of seriousness, though may have serious, scornful purpose
frame
structure that provides premise/setting for narrative/other discourse.
homily
lecture or sermon on religious/moral theme meant to guide human behavior
indirect quotation
actualy words not stated but only approximated or paraphrased
inductive reasoning
method of reasoning in which a number of specific facts/examples used to make generalization
inference
conclusion/proposition arrived at by considering facts, observations, other data
invective
direct verbal assualt, denunciation, casting blame on someone or something
irony
mode of expressiong where intended meaning is opposity of what is stated, implying ridicule/light sarcasm, event reverse of what was expected
lampoon
mocking, satirical assault on person/situation
litotes
form of understatement where negative of contrary used to achieve emphasis/intensity
"he is not a bad dancer"
loose sentence
follows customary word order (subject-verb-object), main idea first then other subordinate clauses
malapropism
confused use of words where appropriate word replaced by one w/ similar sound but inappropriate meaning
maxim
saying/proverb expressing common wisdom or truth
melodrama
literary form where events exaggerated in order to create extreme emotional response
metonymy
figure of speech uses name of one thing to represent something else it is associated w/ "the white house..."
montage
quick succession of images/impressions used to express an idea
motif
phrase, idea, event through repetition serves to unify/convey theme in essay or other
non sequitur
statement/idea fails to follow logically from one before
oxymoron
term w/ contradictory elements, juxtaposed for paradoxical effect "loud silence"
parable
story w/ events from which a moral/spiritual truth may be derived
paradox
statement that seems self-contradictory but is true
parallel structure
structure required for expressing two/more grammatical elements of = rank. good records, good interests, they should earn high scores--wrong
parody
imitation of work meant to ridicule style and subject
pathetic fallacy
faulty reasoning that inappropriately ascribes human feelings to nature/nonhuman objects
pathos
element in literature that stimulates pity/sorrow
pedantic
narrowly academic instead of broad and humane, excessively petty and meticulous
periodic sentence
departs from usual word order by expressing main thought only at end. support first, then idea
persona
role/facade that character assumes/depicts to reader/audience
point of view
relation in which narrator/speaker stands to a subject of discourse. matter discussed in first person (internal), observer (external)
proverb
short pithy statement of general truth, one that condenses common experience into memorable form
pseudonym
false name or alias used by writers
pun
humorous play on words, using similar sounding/ identical words to suggest different meanings
rebuttal, refutation
part of discourse where opposing arguments are anticipated/answered
reiteration
repetition of idea using different words, often for emphasis/other effect
retraction
withdrawal of previously stated idea/opinion
rhetoric
language of work and style, words, often highly emotional, used to convince/sway an audience
rhetorical mode
general term identifies discourse according to chief purpose. exposition, argumentation, description, narration
rhetorical stance
language conveys speaker's attitude/opinion w/ regard to particular subject
satire
literary style used to poke fun at, attack, ridicule idea, vice, foible, often for purpose of inducing change
stream consciousness
style writing where author tries to reproduce random flow of thoughts in human mind
stylistic devices
general term referring to diction, syntax, tone, figurative language, other elements contributing to style or manner of given piece
subtext
implied meaning underlying main meaning of essay or other work
syllogism
form of deductive reasoning where given certain ideas/facts, other ideas/facts must follow. "all men are mortal, mike is a man, therfore mike is mortal"
synecdoche
figure of speech where part signifies the wole or whole signifies part. or when name of material stands for thing itself.
syntax
organization of language into meaningful structure, every sentence has particular pattern of words
verisimilitude
similar to truth, quality of realism in work persuading readers that they are getting vision of life as it is
voice
real, assumed personality used by writer/speaker. grammar- active expresses action performed by subject. passive is action performed on subject
whimsy
object, device, creation that is fanciful or rooted in unreality
apotheosis
occurs when character/thing elevated to high status, appearing godlike
appositive
word/phrase follows noun/pronoun for emphasis/clarity (set off by commas)
asyndeton
occurs when conjunctions that would normally connect string of words are omitted from sentence
ethos
characteristic spirit or ideal that informs a work.
juxtaposition
two contrasting things are placed next to each other for comparison.
logos
use of reason as controlling principle in argument.
pacing
speed of story's action, dialogue, narration
rhetorical (narrative) strategy
way an author organizes words, sentences , and overall argument in order to achieve particular purpose.
rhetorical (stylistic) devices
specific language tools that author uses to carry out rhetorical strategy and achieve purpose for writing
tension
feeling of excitement and expectation the reader/audience feels b/c of conflict, mood, or atmosphere.
texture
way elements of work of prose/poetry joined together, suggesting association w/ style of author (rough or smooth)
zeugma
particular breech of sense in sentence. word used w/ two adjacent words in same construction, but only makes literal sense w/ one of them.