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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ethnic Identity
Specific attributes and societal institutions that make one group of people culturally different from others.
National Identity
A sense of belonging to a nation and a belief in its political aspirations.
Nation
A group of people bound together by a common set of political aspirations, the most important of which is self-government.
nationalism
Pride in one's people and the belief that they have a unique political destiny.
nation-state
A state encompassing one dominant nation that it claims to embody and represent.
citizenship
An individual's relationship to the state, wherein citizens swear allegiance to that state and the state in return is obligated to provide rights to those citizens.
patriotism
Pride in one's state.
ethnic conflict
A conflict in which different ethnic groups struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at each other's expense.
national conflict
A conflict in which one or more groups within a country develop clear aspirations for political independence, clashing with others as a result.
political attitude
Description of one's views regarding the speed and methods with which political changes should take place in a given society.
radical political attitudes
Those with a political attitude that favors dramatic, often revolutionary change.
liberal political attitudes
(1) A political attitude that favors evolutionary transformation. (2) An ideology and political system that favors a limited state role in society and the economy, and places a high priority on individual political and economic freedom.
Political Attitudes Conservative
Those with a political attitude that is skeptical of change and supports the current order.
Political Attitudes reactionary
Someone who seeks to restore the institutions of a real or imagined earlier order.
Political ideology
The basic values held by an individual about the fundamental goals of politics or the ideal balance of freedom and equality.
Political ideology Liberalism
(1) A political attitude that favors evolutionary transformation. (2) An ideology and political system that favors a limited state role in society and the economy, and places a high priority on individual political and economic freedom.
Political ideology communism
(1) A political-economic system in which all wealth and property are shared so as to eliminate exploitation, oppression, and, ultimately, the need for political institutions such as the state. (2) A political ideology that advocates such a system.
Political ideology social democracy
(1) A political-economic system in which freedom and equality are balanced through the state's management of the economy and the provision of social expenditures. (2) A political ideology that advocates such a system.
Political ideology fascism
A political ideology that asserts the superiority and inferiority of different groups of people and stresses a low degree of both freedom and equality in order to achieve a powerful state.
Political ideology anarchism
A political ideology that stresses the elimination of the state and private property as a way to achieve both freedom and equality for all.
Political ideology fundamentalism
A view of religion as absolute and inerrant that should be legally enforced by making faith the sovereign authority.
liberal- democracy
A political system that promotes participation, competition, and liberty and emphasizes individual freedom and civil rights.
Theocracy
is a form of government in which a state is understood as governed by immediate divine guidance provided to ruling clergy or other ruling officials
Political Culture
The basic norms for political activity in a society.
political economy
The study of the interaction between states and markets.
market
The interactions between the forces of supply and demand that allocate resources.
property
Goods or services that are owned by an individual or group, privately or publicly.
public good
Goods, provided or secured by the state, available to society and which no private person or organization can own.
social expenditure
State provision of public benefits, such as education, health care, and transportation.
central bank
The state institution that controls how much money is flowing through the economy, as well as how much it costs to borrow money in that economy.
inflation
An outstripping of supply by demand, resulting in an increase in the general price level of goods and services and the resulting loss of value in a country's currency.
hyperinflation
Inflation of more than 50 percent a month for more than two months in a row.
deflation
A period of falling prices and values for goods, services, investments, and wages.
regulation
A rule or order that sets the boundaries of a given procedure.
monopoly
A single producer that is able to dominate the market for a good or service without effective competition.
tariff
A tax on imported goods.
quota
A nontariff barrier that limits the quantity of a good that may be imported into a country.
nontariff regulatory barriers
Policies and regulations used to limit imports through methods other than taxation.
comparative advantage
The ability of one country to produce a particular good or service more efficiently relative to other countries' efficiency in producing the same good or service.
political-economic system
The relationship between political and economic institutions in a particular country and the policies and outcomes they create.
laissez-faire
The principle that the economy should be "allowed to do" what it wishes; a liberal system of minimal state interference in the economy.
capitalism
A system of production based on private property and free markets.
neocorporatism
A system of social democratic policy making in which a limited number of organizations representing business and labor work with the state to set economic policy.
mercantilism
A political-economic system in which national economic power is paramount and the domestic economy is viewed as an instrument that exists primarily to serve the needs of the state.
parastatals
Industries partially or fully owned by the state.
gross domestic product (GDP)
The total market value of all goods and services produced by a country over a period of one year.
purchasing-power parity (PPP)
A statistical tool that attempts to estimate the buying power of income across different countries by using prices in the United States as a benchmark.
Gini index
A statistical formula that measures the amount of inequality in a society; its scale ranges from 0 to 100, where 0 corresponds to perfect equality and 100 to perfect inequality.
human development index (HDI)
A statistical tool that attempts to evaluate the overall wealth, health, and knowledge of a country's people.
economic liberalization
Changes consistent with liberalism that aim to limit the power of the state and increase the power of the market and private property in an economy.