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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
condition of many sensory receptors in which the magnitude of a receptor potential decreases over a period of time in response to a continuous stimulus
Alarm Reaction
The initial response to stress
The amount of urinary adrenocorticoids is often used as a measure of stress. It has been found to increase in depressed persons who feel hopeless and doomed, in test pilots, and in college students taking examinations or attending exciting movies. In contrast, urinary corticoids were found to drop markedly in persons watching unexciting nature-study films.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
group of changes that make the presence of stress in the body known
Stage of Exhaustion
third stage of the general adaptation syndrome; when the body can no longer cope or adapt to stressors
Stage of Resistance
second stage of the general adaptation syndrome
Stress Syndrome
signs and symptoms associated with the body's frequently maladaptive response to stressors; diverse changes initiated by stress
any agent or stimulus that produces stress
Define the terms stress syndrome and stress.
1. Stress syndrome is a set of signs and symptoms that occur together, but they seem to be characteristic of one particular disease. Stress is a state, or condition, of the body produced by “diverse nocuous agents” and manifested by a syndrome of changes.
Identify the three changes Hans Selye called the “stress triad.”
2. Enlarged adrenal glands, shrunken lymphatic organs, and bleeding gastrointestinal ulcers.
List four characteristics of stressors.
3. Stressors are extreme stimuli. Stressors are very often injurious, unpleasant, or painful stimuli. Anything that an individual perceives as a threat (emotions) acts as a stressor, and stressors differ in different individuals and in one individual at different times.
What is the general adaptation syndrome?
4. The syndrome or group of changes that make the presence of stress in the body known.
Identify the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome. How do they differ?
5. Alarm reaction: hypertrophied adrenal cortex, atrophied lymphatic organs, and bleeding gastric and duodenal ulcers. Stage of resistance: The adrenal cortex and medulla return to their normal rates of secreting hormones. Stage of exhaustion: Corticoid secretion and adaptation eventually decrease markedly.
Discuss the types of responses produced in the body by increased sympathetic activity.
6. Stress activates the organs that produce responses that make up the general adaptation syndrome. “Alarm signals,” presumably through the hypothalamus, stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and the pituitary gland. These actions lead to the secretion of epinephrine and ACTH, hypertrophy of adrenal cortex, and increased secretion of glucocorticoids.
What is meant by the phrase “diseases of adaptation”?
7. “Diseases of adaptation” occur when the body’s adaptive mechanisms fail to meet the challenge issued by stressors. When they fail, disease results.
What is the fight-or-flight reaction?
8. The fight-or-flight reaction is a stimulation of sympathetic centers by impulses from the stress-stimulated hypothalamus. This leads to many stress responses such as increase in rate and strength of heartbeat, a rise in blood pressure, hyperglycemia, pallor and coolness of skin, sweaty palms, and dry mouth.
List four indicators of stress.
9. Answers may include: an increase in the rate and force of the heartbeat, a rise in systolic blood pressure, an increase in blood and urine concentration of epinephrine and norepinephrine, sweating of the palms and hands, dilation of pupils, increased amount of urinary adrenocorticoids, and an increased level of adrenocorticoids in the blood plasma.
What is the difference between physiological and psychological stress?
10. Physiological stress refers to the condition or state of the body. Psychological stress refers to the state of mind.