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29 Cards in this Set

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Antibody
substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates a specific substance (antigen) that has entered the body
Antigen
substance, usually a protein fragment, that causes an immune response
B cell
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Clone
family of cells, all of which have descended from one cell.
Interferon
small protein produced by the immune system that inhibits virus multiplication
Macrophage
phagocytic cell in the immune system. Macrophages are phagocytic monocytes (a nongranular WBC) that have grown to several times their original size after migrating out of the bloodstream
Non specific immunity
is called that because it is in place before a person is exposed to a particular harmful particle or condition.
The word innate refers to something that is already present naturally at birth. Because it includes mechanisms that resist a wide variety of threatening agents or conditions, innate immunity is also called nonspecific immunity
Specific immunity
Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, involves mechanisms that recognize specific threatening agents and then adapt, or respond, by targeting their activity against these agents—and these agents only. Because it targets only specific harmful particles, adaptive immunity is also called specific immunity
What is the difference between self and nonself?
Self refers to our own cells, which have unique cell markers embedded in our plasma membranes that identify each cell as belonging to us as individuals. Nonself molecules are those that are found on foreign cells or particles. These serve as recognition markers for our immune system
What is the difference between adaptive and innate immunity?
Innate immunity is in place before a person is exposed to a particular harmful particle or condition (already present naturally at birth). Adaptive immunity involves mechanisms that recognize specific threatening agents and adapt or respond by targeting their activity against these agents—and these agents only
What is a cytokine? What are some examples of cytokines?
Cytokines are chemicals released from cells to trigger or regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Examples include interleukins, leukotrienes, and interferons
Why are the skin and mucous membranes together called the body's first line of defense?
The skin and mucous membranes serve as a mechanical barrier protecting the internal environment of the human body. These membranes provide several layers of densely packed cells and other materials, forming a “castle wall” that protects the internal environment from invasion by foreign cells
Name some of the events of the inflammatory response. How does each help protect the body?
When bacteria enter and damage the tissue, mediators are released. These inflammation mediators include histamine, kinins, prostoglandins, and leukotrienes. Many of these mediators are chemotaxic. Others will increase blood flow or increase vascular permeability. All of these increase the number of leukocytes at the site of tissue damage. The leukocytes contain, destroy, and phagocytize bacteria
What is the role of macrophages in the defense of the body?
Macrophages are phagocytes, which ingest and destroy microorganisms or other small particles.
How do interferons and complement protect the body?
Interferons interfere with the ability of viruses to cause disease. They do this by preventing viruses from multiplying in cells. Complement molecules are activated in a cascade of chemical reactions triggered by either specific or nonspecific mechanisms. The complement cascade causes lysis of the foreign cell that triggers it.
What is an antigen? What is the difference between a self-antigen and a nonself-antigen?
An antigen is a macromolecule that induces the immune system to make certain responses. Self-antigens are the membrane molecules that identify all the normal cells. Nonself-antigens are those molecules that identify foreign and tumor cells.
What is meant by the term clone?
A clone is a family of cells, all of which have descended from one cell.
How do B cells get their name?
In chickens, the first stage of B cell development occurs in the bursa of Fabricius, hence, the name B cells.
How does the structure of an antibody relate to its function?
The structure of antibodies permits them to distinguish nonself-antigens from self-antigens. This recognition occurs when an antigen’s epitopes (small regions on its surface) fit into and bind to an antibody molecule’s antigen-binding site. The binding of the antigen to antibody forms an antibody-antigen complex that may render toxins harmless.
Describe the mechanism by which complement destroys foreign cells.
Complement molecules activated by antibodies form doughnut-shaped complexes in a bacterium’s plasma membrane. Holes in the complement complex allow sodium and then water to diffuse into the bacterium. After enough water has entered, the swollen bacterium bursts.
How do T cells get their name?
During their residence in the thymus, pre–T-cells develop into thymocytes. Thymocytes divide and increase enormously in a relatively short time. They stream out of the thymus into the blood and find their way to areas of the lymph nodes and spleen called T-development zones. From this time on, they are known as T cells.
What causes a T cell to become sensitized or activated?
. A T cell becomes activated or sensitized when an antigen encounters a T cell whose surface receptors fit the antigen’s epitopes and the antigen binds to the T cell’s receptors.
How do cytotoxic T cells destroy pathogens?
Cytotoxic T cells release lymphotoxins that kill cells by lysing them
What is the difference between inherited and acquired immunity?
Inherited immunity occurs when specific or nonspecific immune mechanisms are put in place by genetic mechanisms during the early stages of human development in the womb. Acquired immunity is resistance that develops after we are born
What is the difference between natural and artificial immunity?
Natural immunity results from exposure is not deliberate and occurs in the course of everyday living. Artificial immunity results from deliberate exposure to harmful antigens (immunizations).
What is the difference between active and passive immunity?
Active immunity occurs when an individual’s own immune system responds to a harmful agent, regardless of whether that agent was naturally or artificially encountered. Passive immunity results when immunity to a disease that has developed in another individual or animal is transferred to an individual who was not previously immune
inflammatory response
tissue damage elicits a host of responses that counteract the injury and promote a return to normal. The inflammatory response isolates the pathogens and stimulates the speedy arrival of large numbers of immune cells
Phagocytosis
A major component of the body's second line of defense is the mechanism of phagocytosis—the ingestion and destruction of microorganisms or other small particles, nuetrophil is most numerous
natural killer (NK) cells.
NK cells are a group of lymphocytes that kill many types of tumor cells and cells infected by different kinds of viruses