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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Matter
Anything that has mass and occupies space
Element
Simple form of matter a substance that cannot be broken down into two or more different substances
Ther are how many elements in the human body
26
There how 11 major elements 4 of which are
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen and they make up 96% of the human body.
There are 15 trace elements that make up less than how much of body weight?
2%
Compound
Atoms of 2 or more elements joined to form chemical combinations.
The concept of an atom was proposed by a chemist named
John Dalton
Atoms contain several different kinds of subatomic particiles the most importan are
Protons, nuetrons, electrons
Protons
are positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus
Nuetrons
have a neutral subatomic particles found in the nucleus
Electrons
Negatively charged subatomic particles found in the electron cloud
Atomic Number and Atomic Weight
The number of protons in an atom's nucleus and the atomic number is critically important; it identifies the kind of element
Atomic Weight
The mass of a single atom and it is equal tothe number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus (p+n)
The total number of electorns in an atom equals the number of what in the nucleus?
Protons
The electrons form a what around the nucleus?
Cloud
Bohr Model
A model resembling planets revolving around the sun, useful in visualizing the structure of atoms.
Exhibits electrons in concentric circles showing relative distances of the electrons from the
Nucleus
Each ring or shell represents a specific energy level and can hold only a certain number of
Electrons
The number of arrangements of electrons determine whether a what is chemically stable?
Atom
An Atom with how many pairs of electrons in the outermost energy level is chemically inert?
8 or 4 pairs
An atom without a full outermost energy level is?
Chemically active
Atoms with fewer or more than eight electrons in the outer energy level will attempt to lose, gain, or share electrons with other atoms to achieve stability
Octet Rule
Isotopes of an element contain the same number of protons but differnt number of
Neutrons
Isotopes have the same atomic number and the same basic chemical properties as any other atom of the same element but they have different
Atomic Weight
An unstable isotope that undergoes nuclear breakdown and emits nuclear particles and radiation.
Radioactive isotope
Chemical Reaction
Interaction between tow or more atoms that occurs as a result of activity between electrons in their outermost energy levels
Molecule
2 or more atoms joined together
Compound
Consists of molecules formed by atoms of 2 or more elements
Chemical bonds
2 types unite atoms into molecules
Ionic Bond
Formed by transfer of electrons; strong electrostatic force that binds positively and negatively charge ions together
Formed by sharing of electron pairs between atoms
Covalent Bond
Much weaker than ionic or covalent bonds and results from unequal chage distribution on molecules
Hydrogen Bonds
Hydrogen Bonds
Form when electrons are unequally shared For example water molecule
Polar molecules have regions with partial electrical charges resulting fromm unequal sharing of electrons among atoms
Hydrogen Bonds
Area of different partial charges attract one another and form
Hydrogen Bonds
Involve the formation or breaking of chemical bonds
Chemical Reactions
Combining of 2 or more substances to form a more complex substance; formation of new chemical bonds: A+B=AB
Synthesis
Breaking down of a substance into 2 or more simpler substances; breaking of a chemical bonds AB = A+B
Decomposition reaction
Reversible reaction occur
In both directions
Metabolism
All of the chemical reactions that occur in body cells
Catabolism
Chemical reactions that break down complex compounds into simpler ones and release energy; hydrolysis is a common catabolic reaction
What are the end results of Catabolism?
Carbon dioxide, water, and other waste products
More than half the energy release during Catabolism is transferred to what whcih is then used to do cellular work?
ATP
Chemical reactions that join simple molecules together to form more complex molecules
Anabolism
Chemical reactions responsibile for anabolism is
Dehydration Synthesis
Molecule
2 or more atoms joined together
Compound
molecules formed by atoms of 2 or more elements
Chemical bonds
2 types unite atoms into molecules
Ionic or electrovalent bonds
formed by transfer of electrons; strong electrostatic force that binds positively and negatively charged ions together
Covalent Bond
formed by sharing of electron pairs between atoms
Hydrogen bond
Much weaker that inoic or covalent bonds; result from unequal charge distribution on molecules
Hydrogen bonds from when
electrons are unequally shared like WATER molecule.
Polar molecules have regions
with partial electrical charges resulting from unequal sharing of electons amoung atoms
Chemical Reactions involve the formation or breaking of
Chemical bonds
3 types of chemial reactions involved in physiology
Synthesis reaction, Decomposition reaction, exchange reaction
Synthesis Reaction
combining 2 or more substances to form a more complex substance fromation of new chemical bonds; A+B=AB
Decomposition reaction is
Breaking down of a substance into 2 or more simplier substances; breaking of chemical bonds AB=A+B
Exchange Reaction is
decomposition of 2 substances and in exchange synthesis of 2 new compounds for them: AB+CD=AD +CB
Metabolism
all of the chemical reactions that occur in body cells
Catabolism
chemical reactions that break down complex compounds into simpler ones and release energy; hydrolysis is a common catabolic reaction
Ultimately the end porducts of what are carbon dioxide, water, and other waste products
Catabolism
Catabolism involves more than half of the energy released in transferred to what which is used to do cellular work
ATP
Anabolism is
Chemical reaction that join simple molecules together to form more complex molecules
What chemical reaction is responsibile for anabolism
dehydration synthesis
These have few carbon atoms and none have C-C or C-H bonds
Inorganic compounds
These have at least 1 carbon atom and at least one C-C or C-H bond in each molecule
Organic Molecules
Organic Molecules often have
Functional groups attached to the carbon containing core of the molecule
Inorganic molecules are properties of
Water
The body's most abundant and important compound is
Inorganic molecules
This allows water to act asw an effective solvent
Polarity
This solvent allows transportation of essential materials throughout the body
Inorganic molecules
Water can loose and gain large amounts of heat with little change in its own temperature; enables the body to maintain a relatively constant temperature
High specific heat
water requires the absorption of significant amounts of heat to change it from a liquid to a gas allows the body to sissipate excess heat
High heat of vaporization
Required to complete decomposition reactions necessary for the release of energy in the body
Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide
Produced as a waste product and also helps maintain the appropriate acid-base balance in the body
Large group of inorganic compounds that includes acids bases and salts
Electrolytes
Substances that dissociate in solution to form ions
Electrolytes
Postively charged ions are
cations
Negatively charged ions are
anions
Any substances that releases a hydrogen ion (H+) when in solution; "proton donor"
Acid
Level of what depends on the number of hydrogen ions a particular acid will relaease
Acidity
Electrolytes that dissociate to yield hydroxide ions (OH-) or other electrolytes that combine with hydrogen ions (H+)
Bases
Bases are described as
Proton Acceptors
PH Scale
Assigns the value to measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution
PH indicates
The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution
PH of 7 indicates
Neutrality; equal amounts of H+ and OH-;
a pH less than 7 indicates
Acidity
A pH of higher than 7 indicates
Alkalinity
Buffers
maintain constancy of pH and minimize changes in the concentrations of h+ and OH- ions
These act as a reservior for hydrogen ions
Buffers
Compunds that result from chemical interaction of an acid and a base
Salts
Reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt and water is called a
Neutralization reaction
This describes compounds that contain C-C or C-H bonds
Organic
Organic compounds containing carbon hydrogen, and oxygen commonly called sugars and starches
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides are
Simple sugars with short carbon chains those with 6 carbons are hexoses whereas those with 5 are pentoses
2 (di) or more (poly) simple sugars that are bonded together through a synthesis reaction
Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
Water-insoluble organic molecules that are critically important biological compounds are
Lipids
Lipids major roles:
Energy source, structural role, and Integral parts of cell membranes
Triglycerides or fats
Most abundant lipids and most concentrated source of energy
The building blocks of Triglycerides are
Glycerol and fatty acids
Types of fatty acids
saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid
Triglyerides are formed by a
Dehydration synthesis
Fat compounds similar to triglyceride
Phospholipids
One end of phospholipids is water soluble
Hydrophilic
The other end of a phosphilipids
is fat soluble-- hydrophobic
These can join 2 different chemical environments
Phospholipids
Phospholipids can form double layers called bilayers that make up
Cell Membrane
Main component is steroid nucleus
Steroids
Steriods are involved in many
Structural and functional roles
Commonly called tissue hormones produced by cell membranes throughout the body
Prostaglandins
Most abundant organic compounds; chain like polmers
Proteins
These are building blocks of proteins
Amino acids
8 amino acids that cannot be produced by the human body
Essential amino acids
Nonesssential amino acids
12 amino acids can be produced from molecules available in the numan body
Amino acids consist of
carbon atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group a hydrogen atom and a side chain
There are 4 levels of proten organization
Primary structure, Secondary Structure, Tertiary Structure, and Quaternary Structure
Functional shape of the protein molecules is called the
Native state
Structional proteins form the structures of the
Body
Funtional proteins cause chemical changes in the
Molecules
Denatured proteins have lost their shape and therefore their
Function
Proteins can be denatured by changes in pH, temperature, radiation and
Other chemicals
If the chemical environment is restored proteins may be renatured and
Funtion normally
DNA funtions as the molecule of
Heredity
Base pairs holds how many chains of DNA molecule together?
2 chains
DNA is composed of
deoxyribonucleotides, that is, structural units composed of the pentose sugar, phosphate group, and notrogenous base
RNA is composed of
pentose sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Some RNa molecules are temporary copies of the
DNA code
These are regulatory and act as enzymes
Some RNA molecules
Nucleotides have important roles in the body such as
ATP, 3 phosphate subunits
Energy stored in ATP is used to
Do the body's work
ATP is often called the
Energy Currency of cells