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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
respiratory system
muscles responsible for the changing shape of the thoracic cavity that allows air to move in and out of the lungs
homeostatic mechanism
a system that maintains a constant enviroment enabling body cells to function effectively
a space or cavity inside some structures of the body, as inside the cranial bones(paranasal sinuses) and inside a lymph node; some large viens are also called sinuses
sense of smell
organ of the digestive and respiratory system; commonly called the throat
the voice box located just bellow the pharynx; the largest piece of cartilage making up the larynx is the thyroid cartilage, commonly known as the "Adam's apple"
the windpipe; the tube extending from the larynx to the bronchi
the branches of the trachea
organ of respiration; the right lung has three lobes and the left has two lobes
alveolus is plural - literally, a small cavity; alveoli of lungs are microscopic saclike dialation of terminal bronchioles
respiratory membrane
the single layer of cells that makes up the wall of the aleoli
respiratory tract
the two dividions of the respiratory system are the upper and lower respiratory tracts
respiratory muscosa
mucus-covered membrane that lines the tubes of the resiratory tree
external nares
nasal cavity
the moist, warm cavities lined by mucosa located just beyond the nostrils; olfactory receptors are located in the mucosa
nasal septum
a partition that seperates the right and left nasal cavities
nasal polyps
painless, non-cancerous tissue growths that project from nasal mucosa
paranasal sinuses
four pairs of sinuses that have openings into the nose
shell-shaped structure; for example,bony projections into the nasal cavity
the uppermost portion of the tube just behind the nasal cavities
the portion of the pharynx that is located behind the mouth
the lowest part of the pharynx
eustachian tube
tube extending from inside the ear to the throat to equilize air pressure; also called the autitory tube
voacal cords
bands of tissue in larynx responsible for the production of sound(speach)
the space between the vocal cord
lidlike cartilage overhanging the entrance to the larynx
inflamation of the nasal mucosa pften caused by nasal infections
soar throat; inflammation or infection of the pharynx
inflammation of the mucous tissues of the larynx
mucus vs mucosa
mucus= thick slippery substance that is secreated by the mucous membrane and keeps the membrane moist.
mucosa= mucous membrane
clinical term for a bloody nose
primary bronchi
first branches of the trachea(right and left primary brochi)
secondary bronchi
smaller bronchial branches resulting from division of primary bronchi
small branches of a bronchus
alveolar duct
airway that branches from the smallest bronchioles; alveolar sacs arise from the alveolar ducts
a substance covering the surface of the respiratory membrane inside the alveolus; it reduces surface tension and prevents the alveoli from colapsing
respiratory distress syndrome
difficulty in breathing caused by absence or failure of the surfactant in fluid lining the alveoli of the lung; IRDS is infant respiratory distress syndrome; ARDS is Adult " " "
the serous membrane in the thoracic cavity
inflammation of the pleura
total or partial collapse of the alveoli of the lung
abnormal condition in which air is present in the pleural space surrounding the lung, possibly causing collapse of the lung
abnormal condition in which blood is present in the pleural space surrounding the lung, possibly causing collapse of the lung
breathing or pulmonary ventilation
pulmonary ventilation
breathing; process that moves air in and out of the lungs
external respiration
the exchange of gases between air in the lungs and in the blood
cellular respiration
enzymes in the mitochondrial wall and matriz using oqygen to break down glucose and other nutrients to release energy needed for cellular work
moving air onto the lungs; also known as inhalation, oposite of exhalation or expiration
moving air out of the lungs; also known as exhalation
inspiratory muscles
the muscles that increase the size of the thorax, including the diaphragm and external intercostals, and allow air to rush into the lungs
membrane or partition that separates one this from another, the flat muscular sheet that seperates the thorax and abdomen and its major muscle of respiration
phrenic nerve
the nerve that stimulates the diaphragm to contract
expiratory muscles
muscles that allow more forceful expiration to increase the rate and depth of ventalation; the internal intercostals and the abdominal muscles
hemoglobin combined with oxygen
compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide with hemoglobin
carbon dioxide
molecule made up of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms; produced by processes of cellular respiration as a waste product that must be excreated from the body through the respiratory system
an insterment that is used to measure the amount of air exchanged in breathing
tital volume {TV}
amount of air breathed in and out with each breath
vital capacity {VC}
largest amount of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs in one inspiration and expiration
expiratory reverse volume {ERV}
the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring the tital volume {TV}
inspiratory reverse volume {IRV}
the amount of air that can be forcibly inspired over and above a normal respitation
Residual volume {RV}
the air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration
respiratory control centers
centers located in the medulla and pons that simulate the muscles of respitation
inspiratory center
one of the two most important control centers located in the medulla; the other is the expiratory center
expiratory center
one of the two most important control centers located in the medulla; the other is inspiratory center
reseptors that respond to chemicals and and are responsible for taste and smell
carotid body
chemoreceptors located in the carotid artery that detects the changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, and blood acid levels
aortic body
small cluster of chemosensitive cells that respond to carbon dioxide and oxygen levels
normal respiration
very rapid, deep respirations
slow and shallow respirations
difficult or labored breathing
dyspnea(difficulty breathing)that is relieved after moving into an upright or sitting position
temporary cessation of breathing
Cheyne-Stokes respiration {CSR}
pattern of breathing associated with critical conditions such as brain injury or drug overdose and characterized by cycles of apnea and hyperventalation
respiratory arrest
cessation of breathing without resumption