• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/41

Click to flip

41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define articulation.
place where 2 bones come together. Some of these articulations are movable but some are not
What are the three main types of joints?
fibrous;cartilaginous;synovial
Describe fibrous joints.
no synovial cavity, held together by fibrous connective tissue, immovable; ex) sutures (skull), gomphoses (teeth)
Describe cartilaginous joints.
no synovial cavity, held together by hyaline/fibrous cartilage, slightly movable; ex) pubic symphysis
Describe synovial joints.
synovial cavity and fluid; freely movable: ex) elbow, hip, knee.
Define symphysis.
a slightly movable joint where fibrocartilage unites the 2 bones. Ex) the pubic symphysis
Define synchondrosis.
epiphyseal plates of long bones are temporary joints made of hyaline cart; permanent synchondrosis = between ribs and sternum
Describe the structure of synovial joints.
has a space (synovial cavity) between articulating bones; articular cartilage covering the bones; the whole this in encapluseate by the the articular (fibrous) capsule, composed of two parts: outer fibrous membrane and inner synovial membrane
Describe fibrous membrane.
superficial connective tissue that attaches to periosteum of the articulating bones; also called ligaments (bundle of fibers connecting bone to bone)
Describe synovial membrane.
inner portion of the articular capsule that secretes synovial fluid; thick when no movement; thins out with joint movement; functions: decreases friction, absorbs shock, supply oxygen and nutrients to the avascular articular cartilage, phagocytic cells that remove debris from the area. With over usage and stress on the joint; there may be an increase in the production of the synovial fluid = water on the knee is a possibility. This may need to be removed.
Define Bursa.
saclike, fluid filled structures strategically situated (btw bones and skin, tendons, ligaments, muscles) to alleviate frictions in some joints such as the shoulder or knee joints; an inflamed bursa is called bursitis.
Define Meniscus.
pads of fibrocartilage found within some joints.
List the 6 types of synovial joints.
plane(gliding); saddle; hinge; pivot; ball&socket; ellipsoid(condyloid)
Describe Plane Joints and give examples.
back and forth movement between the flat surface of bones, close proximity, same plane. Ex) carpals/tarsals; vertebraes, acromioclavicular joints.
Describe Saddle Joints and give examples.
rocks back and forth, one bone is saddle shaped and the fits into the saddle Ex) base metacarpal 1 and trapezium
Describe Hinge Joints and give examples.
like a door hinge that swings, motion around a single axis Ex) elbow (distal humerous and proximal ulna); anterior knee (distal femur; proximal tibia)
Describe Pivot Joints and give examples.
one bone rotates around another; ex) vertebral atlas and axis; proximal ulna and proximal radius w/ ligament
Describe Ball-and-Socket Joints and give examples.
ball like surface fitting into a cuplike depression; greatest range of movement. Ex) humoral head and glenoid cavity; femoral head and acetabulum
Describe Condyloid (elliposoidal) Joints and give examples.
convex oval-shaped projection into an oval-shaped depression of another Ex) knuckles (head of metacarpal and base of phalanx); posterior knee (distal femur; proximal tibia)
Describe Syn. Joint Elevation.
upward movement of body part (mandible or shoulders)
Describe Syn. Joint Depression.
downward movement of body part (mandible or shoulders)
Describe Syn. Joint Protraction.
forward movement of body part (jutting out)
Describe Syn. Joint Retraction.
backward movement of body part (pulling in)
Describe Syn. Joint Inversion.
movement of sole inward (ankle roll out)
Describe Syn. Joint Eversion.
movement of sole outward (knock kneed ankle)
Describe Syn. Joint Dorsiflexion.
toe to the sky
Describe Syn. Joint Plantarflexion.
toe pointing to the ground
Describe Syn. Joint Supination.
movement of forearm so palm faces up (anatomical position)
Describe Syn. Joint Pronation.
movement of forearm so palm faces down
Describe Syn. Joint Adduction.
movement towards the midline
Describe Syn. Joint Abduction.
movement away from the midline
Describe Syn. Joint Flexion.
decrease the angle between two bones
Describe Syn. Joint Extension.
increase the angle between two bones
Describe Syn. Joint Hyperextension.
beyond praphysiological space. Ex) whiplash
Describe opposition.
first finger to thumb
Describe Gliding.
top of hand; left to right.
Define arthritis.
inflammation of joints; 3 common types - RA; Osteo; Gouty
Describe Rheumatoid arthritis.
autoimmune; attacks cartilage and syn membranes; joint inflammation; pain; swelling; if not treated syn membranes become thicker
Describe Osteoarthritis.
degenerative joint disease which is much more common than R.A; onset with aging; is deterioration of the articular cartilage but no synovial membrane involvement; inflammation; pain and decrease in the use of the joint
Describe Gouty Arthritis.
metabolic disease; producing too much uric acid which build up in the blood form salt crystals that deposit in the joints; causing pain and decrease in motion; fusion of bone that wears at cartilage; usually in men w/ family history; big toe.
Define pannus.
abnormal growth of tissue formed by the inflamed synovial membrane; may grow large enough to distort the joints. Destruction of the cartilage leading to the bones within the joint ossifying together