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117 Cards in this Set

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Approximately how many taste buds are there?
Where are most taste buds found?
on the tounge, soft palate, pharynx, larynx, and cheeck
Name the cells found in taste buds
Supporting, Gustatory, and Basal Cells
What do Supporting Cells in taste buds do?
form an insulating capsule and make up the bulk of the taste bud
What do Gustatory Cells house?
receptor cells and gustatory hairs
Gustatory Hairs
microvilli that project their hairs toward taste pores
What do the Basal Cells of gustatory do?
gustatory stem cells that replace dead or injured taste buds
Name the cells found on the papillae
Circumvallate papillae, Fungiform papillae, Filiform Papillae
How many Circumvallate papillae are there on the tounge?
7 to 12
Fungiform Papillae
mushroom shaped papillae scattered over the surface of the tounge and primarily have taste buds on the top
Where are taste buds located on the Circumvallate papillae
on the side
Filiform Papillae
hair like papillae scattered all over the tounge with NO taste buds
Name the five basic taste sensations
sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
What is sweet stimulated by?
sugars, alchohols, saccharin, and some amino acids
What is salty stimulated by?
by sodium chloride and other inorganic salts
What is sour stimulated by?
by acids
What is bitter stimulated by?
alkaloids such as quinine, nicotine, caffeine, etc
What is umami stimulated by?
tang of aging cheese, and the flavor of the food additive MSG
How can a chemical be tasted?
dissolves in saliva, diffuses into the taste pore, contact the gustatory hairs, depolarization happens and it's sent to the brain
What cranial nerves are used to taste?
7 4 10
What happens in the brain after the message of taste is sent there?
impulses are sent to the medulla and then to the thalamus and then to the parietal lobe
How much of taste is smell?
loss or imparment of the taste sense
How many olfactory receptors are there?
anywhere from 10 - 100 million
Where do most of the olfactory receptors lie?
in the superior portion of the nasal cavity
Name the cells that make up the olfactory tissue
Supporting Cells, Olfactory Receptors, Basal cells
What are supporting cells of the olfactory composed of?
columnar epithelium
Where are supporting cells of the olfactory normally found?
in mucous membrane lining the nose
Olfactory receptors are what kind of neurons?
bipolar that extend into the nasal cavity
Basal Cells of olfactory
receptor stem cells that lie inbetween supporing cells
What do basal cells of the olfactory do?
replace injured cells
How long does it take to replace cells of the tounge?
30 to 60 days
Mitral cells
post ganglionic neurons
What do olfactory receptors do?
act as preganglionic nerves
Where does the snapse happen in a olfactory sensation?
Where is the glomeruli located?
in the olfactory bulb
How does the brain process a smell?`
after the impulse has synapsed it is sent to the brain via the olfactory tracts
How can a sent only be detected?
when it is in liquid
When a smell is in liquid how is it processed?
depolarization occurs
Where is the olfactory cortex located?
in the frontal lobe
Where do the olfactory bulbs lie?
in the cribiform plate
How big is the eye?
it is 2.5 cm in diameter
What are the eyelids supported by?
tarsal plates
tarsal plates
connective tissue sheets that anchor the orbicularis oculi levator palpebrae superioris
What is another name for a tarsal gland?
What does the tarsal gland do?
produce an oily secretion that lubricates the eyelid and the eye to prevent the eyelids from sticking together
What is the conjunctiva's purpose?
lubricates the eye so they don't dry out
Lacrimal Caruncle
meaty part of the inner eye
Name the flow of tears
lacrimal punctum, lacrimal canal, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct
Name the structures of the eye
Fibrous Tunic, Vascular Tunic, and Nervous Tunic
What is the Fibrous tunic made of?
sclera and cornea
What is the vascular tunic made of?
Choroid, Ciliary Body, Lens, Iris, Pupil
What is the nervous tunic made of?
Optic disc, rods, cones, Macula Lutea, and Fovea Centralis
Whats another name for the optic disc?
blind spot
distinguishes dim light and provides our perpheral vision
color vision
WHat is the fovea centralis made of?
only cones
Canal of Schlemma
an unusual venous channel that encircles the eye and drains aqueous humor into the venous blood supply of the body
How does an image get processed?
refraction allows the image to come in focus for the retina where the rods and cones are stimulated and sent to the brain
Name the pathways for vision
optic nerve, optic chiasma, optic tracts, and occipital lobe of the cerebrum
the lens must change shapes to adjust for vision at various distances
Near point vision
minimum distance from the eye than an object can be clearly focused with maximum effort
What is the approximate amount for near point vision?
4 in
Far point vision
distance beyond which no change in lens shape (accommodation) is needed for focusing
What is the approximate amount for far point vision?
20 ft
Person can see close objects but distant objects are blurred
Whats another name for Myopia?
What is myopia a result of?
the eyeball being too long
Person can see distant objects but close objects are blurred
Whats another name for hyperopia?
What is hyperopia a result of?
the eyeball being too short
unequal curvature of the lens (or cornea) resulting in a refractory problem
clouding of the lens that cause the world to appear distorted
pressure within the eye may increase to dangerous levels and compress on the retina and optic nerve
When does Glaucoma occur?
when the aqueous humor is blocked
Retinal Detachment
the pigmented layers and nervous layers separate and allow the jellylike vitreous humor to seep between them and can cause permanent blindness
double vision
cross eyed
Color blindness
congenital lack of one or more of the cone types
“night blindness” that is usually the result of a vitamin A deficiency
Name the parts of the outter ear
Pinna, External Auditory Meatus, Tympanic membrane
Whats another name for Pinna
Middle Ear
an air-filled cavity in the petrous portion of the temporal bone
Name the parts of the middle ear
Mastoid Antrum, Auditory Tube, Ossicles, Oval Window
Mastoid Antrum
connects the middle ear to the mastoid air sinuses
Auditory tube
help equalize pressure in the middle ear cavity
Whats another name for the auditory tube?
eustachian tube
smallest bones that amplify sound in the body
Name the parts to the ossicles
Malleus Incus Stapes
“hammer”; the handle is secured to the eardrum
What does the Tensor tympani do?
tenses the eardrum by pulling it medially to prevent damage from very loud sounds
What does the stapedius do?
checks the vibration of the whole ossicle chain and limits the movement of the stapes
Oval window
opening through which the stapes passes in order to articulate with the inner ear structures
fills the outter part of the inner ear
fills the inner part of the inner ear
a central, egg-shaped cavity of the bony labyrinth that possesses two ducts that house receptors for equilibrium (static)
Name the two parts to the vestibule
Saccule and Utricle
a small duct that is continuous with the membranous labyrinth
a slightly larger duct that is continuous with the semicircular ducts
Semicircular canals
fluid filled canals that contain receptors for equilibrium (dynamic)
Name the chambers of the cochlea (in order)
scala vestibula, scala media, scala tympani
What is another name for Scala media?
cochlear duct
Where is the organ or corti found?
in the cochlear duct
What does the organ of corti do?
stores the receptors for hearing
Vestibluar membrane
seperates the cochlear ducts from the scala vestibula
Basilar membrane
separates the cochlear ducts from the scala tympani
Otitis externa
inflammation of the external auditory canal caused by bacterial or fungal infections
loss of the ability to hear high-pitched sounds
Motion sickness
sensory input mismatch
any hearing loss
Conduction deafness
something hampers sound conduction (example: earwax)
Sensorineural deafness
results from damage to the neural structures at any point from the cochlear hair cells to and including the auditory cortical cells.
ringing or clicking sounds in the ears
Meniere's syndrome
labyrinth disorder that affects both the semicircular canals and the cochlea. Person has vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and tinnitus.