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45 Cards in this Set

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Mediating motor molecule that is released in one part of the body but regulates activity of cells in other parts of hte body. Enters through the blood stream.
2 types of glands
Exocrine and Endocrine
Secrete their products into ducts that carry the sectetions into body cavieies, into the lumen of an organ, or to the outer surface of the. Sudoriferous, sebaceous, mucous, and digestive.
Exocrine Glands
Secrete their hormones into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secretory cells. Then hormones difuse into capillaries and blood carries them away. Requires very little.
Endocrine Glands
Types of Endocrine glands
Pituitaty, Thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal.
If a hormone is present in excess, the number of target cell receptors may decrease.
Down Regulation
When a hormone is deficient, the number of receptors may increase.
Up Regulation
These hormones pass from the sectetory cells that make them into interstitial fluid and then into the blood. Includes most hormones.
Circulating Hormones
Act locally on neghboring cells or on the same cell that secreted them wthout first entering the bloodstream.
Local Hormones
Types of Local Hormones
Paracrines and Autocrines
Local hormones that act on neighboring cells.
Local Hormones that act on the same cell that secreted them.
Local hormones are inactivated...
Circulating Hormones are inactivated by the ___ and excreted by the ____.
Liver - Kidneys
Chemically, hormones can be divide into two broad classes
Those soluable in Lipids, and those soluable in Water
Types of lipid solluable hormones
Steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and nitric oxide
Types of Water soluble Hormones
Amine Hormones, Peptide and Protein Hormones, and Eicosanoid hormones.
Water soluble hormones flow through the blood plama in the ____ form, whle lipid soluble are bound to ____.
Free - Transport Protiens
Transport Proteins are synthesized by cells in the
3 Functions of Transport Proteins
1.Make Lipid soluble hormones temporarily water soluble. Increasing blood solubility.
2. Retard passage of small hormone molecules through the filtering mechanism in the kidnesys, slowing the rate of loss in the urine.
3. They provide a ready reserve of hormone, already present in the blood.
Action of a lipid soluble hormone
Lipid soluble hormone diffues through the lipid bilyar into the cell. It binds to receptors and activates them within the cytosol of nucleus. Gene expression is altered. DNA is transcribed, mRNA is formed, leaves the nucleus, and synthesizes protien, which alters the function of the cell.
Action of Water Soluble Hormone
Look In Book
The responsiveness of a hormone depends on
1. The hormone's concentration
2. The abundance of the target cell's horomone receptors
3. Influences exreted by other hormones.
The actions of some hormones on target cells require a simultaneous or recent exposure to a second hormone
Permissive Effect
The release of most hormones occure in
Short bursts, with little or no secretion between bursts
Hormone secretions is regulated by
1. Signals from the nervous system.
2. Chemical changes in the blood.
3. Other hormones
Most hormonal regulatory systems work via
Negative Feedback
Major integrating link between the nervous and endocrine systems.
Connects the pituitary gland and the hypothalmus
The anterior pituitary develops from an outgrowth of
Ectoderm called the hypophyseal pouch in the roof of the mouth
The posterior pituitary develops from
an ectoderm outgrowth, the neurohypophyseal bud
The axon terminals in the posterior pituitary are asociated with specialized neuroglia caled
The third region of the pituitary, atrophies during human fetal develpment and ceases to exist as a separate lobe in adults
Pars intermedia
Release of anterior pituitary hormones is stimulated by....and surpresed by.....
Releasing Hormone/Inhibiting Hormone
Releasing Hormone and Inhibiting Hormones originate in the
Hypothalamic hormones reach the anterior pituitary through a
Portal System
Portal system track
Blood flows from one capillary netwrok into a portal vein, and then into a second capillary network, without passing through the heart.
Hypophyseal Portal System Tract
Blood flows from capillaries in teh hypothalmus into portal veins that carry blood to capillaries of the anterior pituitary
Cells that synthesize the hypothalamic realising and inhibiting hormoes in their cell body and package the hormones inside vesicles,which reach the axon terminals by axonal transport.
Neurosecretory cells
Hormones that influence another endocrine gland
Tropic Hormones
Secretion of anterior pituitary hormones is regulated in two ways
1. Neurosecretory cells in teh hypothalmus secrete five releasing and two inhibiting hormones, which stimulate and suppress secretion of the Anterior Pituitary.
2. Negative feedback in the form of hormones relesed by target glands decreases secretions of three types of anterior pituitary cells.
The most numerious cells in the Anterior Pituitary
The main function of hGH is to promote the synthesis of small protein hormones called
Insulinlike Growth Factors
IGF's cause cells to grow and mulitiply by
Increasing the uptake of amino acids into cells and accelerating protein synthesis
Somatotroph secretory activity is controlled by