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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 major parts of the brain
brianstem, dicephalon, cerebrum, cerebellum
brainstem
continuous with spinalcord and consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain
cerebellum
little brain posterior to the brain stem
dicephalon
superior to the brain stem, consists mainly of the thalamus hypothalamus epithalamus and subthalamus
cerebrum
superior and enveloping the dicephalons the largest part of the brain
blood brain barrier
protects brain cells from harmful substances and pathogens
crainial meninges
surround and protect the brain crainial meninges are continous with spinal meninges
dura mater
outer
arachnoid mater
middle
pia mater
inner
falx cerebri
seperates two hemispheres of cerebrum
falx cerebelli
seperates two hemispheres of cerebellum
tentorium cerebelli
seperates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
cerebrospinal fluid (csf)
a clear colorless liquid protects the brain and spinal cord against chemical and physical injuries and carries oxygen, glucose and other needed chemicals from blood to neurons and neuroglia
ventricles
four csf filled cavities within brain
lateral ventricles
located in each hemisphere of the cerebrum
septum pellucidum
a thin membrane seperating the lateral ventricles
third ventricle
narrow cavity along midline superior to hypothalamus, between right and left halves of the thalamus
fourth ventricle
lies between the brain stem and cerebellum
mechanical protection (csF)
shock absorbing medium, also buoys the brain so it "floats" in cavity
chemical protection (CSF)
provides optimal chemical enviroment for accurate neuron signaling. slight changes in ionic composition disrupt production of aps and postsynaptic potentials
circulation
medium for exchange of nutrients and waste between blood and nervous tissue
choroid plexuses
site of csf production networks of capillaries in the walls of ventricles covered by ependymal cells that form csf from blood plasma by filtration and secretion
blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier
ependymal cells are joined by tight junctions forming semi permeable sheet which regulates the passage of materials from the choroid plexuses to the csf protecting the brain and spinal cord from potentially harmful blood-borne substances
circulation csf
formed in laters ventricles-thru interventricular foramina to-third ventricle-thru the cerebral aqueduct to-fourth ventricle-thru three openings-to the subarachnoid space and central canal-csf is reabsorbed into blood through arachnoid villi
brain stem
consist of the medulla oblongata, pons ans midbrain
reticular formation
a netlike region of interspresed gray and white matter that extends thru the brain stem
medulla oblongata
a contionuation of the spinal cord, contains all sensory and motor tracts extending between the spinal cord and other parts of the brain
pyramids
white matter bulges on the anterior aspect of medulla, formed by the largest motor tracts that pass from the cerebrum to spinal cord
decussation of pryamids
90% of axons cross over to the opposite side just before entering the spinal cord. explains why one side of the brain controls the otherside of the body
medulla oblingata controls vital body functions:
cardiovascular center- regulates heart rate force of heartbeat and diameter of blood vessels
medullary rhymicity- of respiratory center adjusts basic rhythem of breathing.
medulla also contains other nuclei which contro reflexes for vomiting coughing sneezing
olive
an oval shaped swelling lateral to each pyramid which houses the inferior olivary nuclues
inferior olivary nucleus
impulses from propriceptors are re;ayed to cerebellum
gracile and cuneate nucei
associated with sensation of touch, conscious proprioception, pressure, and vibration, located in the posterior section of the medulla
medial lemniscus
band of white matter where medullary axons ascend to the thalamus carring sensory information
pons
lies directly superior to medulla and anterior to cerebellum and consists of both nuclei and tracts
pontine nucluei
site where voluntary movements from cerebral cortea are relayed into crebellum
pneumotaxic and apneustic areas
together with medullary rythmicity are help to control breathing
midbrain
midbrain or mesencephalon extends from pons to dicephalon and contains both tracts and nuclei
cerebral peduncle
anterior pair of tracts that contain axons of motor neurons conducting nerve impulses from cerebrum to medulla pons and spinalcord
tectum
posterior part of midbrain contains 4 rounded elevations
superior colliculli
2 superior elevations serve as reflex center for certain visual activities such as eye movement and tracking and the pupillary reflex
inferior colliculi
two inferior elevations part of auditory pathway relaying impulses from hearing receptors to thalamus
substantia
large darkly pigmented nuclei together with basal ganglia control subconscious muscle activities loss of these neurons is associated with parkinsons disease
red nuclei
on l and r side function with cerebellum to coordinate muscular movements