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103 Cards in this Set

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What are the three types of blood vessels

- Arteries


- Veins


- Capillaries


What are the three layers of a blood vessel

- Tunica Externa


- Tunica Media


- Tunica Intima

What is the lumen of the blood vessel

The inside space of the vessel that blood flow through

Which vessel has a smaller lumen and why

The arteries have smaller lumens due to the high pressure needed to transport the blood to the entire body



Which vessel is more likely to collapse

Veins are more likely to collapse because they have a thinner tunica media



What is the purpose of the venous valves

To prevent back flow of blood as its being transported back to the heart.



What are the three types of arteries

- Elastic


- Muscular


- Arterioles

Which vessel has more elastic and collagen fibers and why

Arteries have more elastic and collagen because they contract and relax while transporting blood



TRUE OR FALSE




Veins affect blood pressure

FALSE, veins do not affect blood pressure because they do not contract and relax.

What are the different types of capillaries.


What is their degree of permeability

- Continuous: most common, least permeable




- Fenestrated: slightly more permeable




- Sinusoid: most permeable

Where are the 3 types of arteries found

Aorta is an elastic artery




Femoral artery is a muscular artery




Arterioles are found between muscular arteries and capillaries

What is the function of capillaries

Capillaries allow for the exchange of substances between blood and body tissues.




Oxygen and nutrients go in and waste comes out, by way of diffusion or between intercellular clefts or through fenestrations

Where are the 3 types of capillary beds found

Continuous capillary beds are found in the skin and muscle




Fenestrated capillary beds are found in the kidneys and small intestine




Sinusoidal capillary beds are found in the spleen and liver. These beds allow RBCs to pass through

What is the function of "true" capillaries

They branch from the metarteriole and make up the bulk of the capillary bed.



What is a metarteriole

This is the vessel branch from and arteriole that starts the thoroughfare channel of the capillary bed, leading to the post-capillary venule, which drains the bed.

What is a reason that precapillary sphincters contract

These sphincters shunt the blood when the body gets cold and responds to forcing all blood to the body core to maintain function temperature around vital organs.

TRUE OR FALSE




The systemic circulation system contains the largest percentage of blood, with about 55-60% of it in the systemic arteries



FALSE, while the system circulation system does contain the largest percentage of blood, that blood is stored in the venous system and not the arteries.

What are varicose veins and what is the cause

Leaky venous valves cause varicose veins, which are twisted, dilated (swollen) superficial veins.




Standing/walking hard floors create them in the calves

What are anastomoses and where is one located

Anastomoses are alternative blood pathways, the joining of blood vessels to supply the same body region.




The circle of Willis is an anatomosis found in the brain. The coronary circulation of the heart is another

What is arteriosclerosis and where is it commonly found

The thickening and stiffening of artery walls due to the buildup of fatty plaques, found in the aorta and coronary/carotid arteries



What are some of the common risk factors of ateriosclerosis

High cholesterol, Smoking, diabetes, family history





What are the two significant sources of cholestrol

Animal fat and the human liver production of cholestrol

What are the 2 types of cholesterol and their charactersitics

HDL: high-density cholesterol, considered "good"




LDL: low-density cholesterol, considered "bad"

How are HDL and LDL "packaged"

HDL and LDL are packaged as lipoproteins




LDL transports from the liver to tissues




HDL transports from tissues to liver



What is the drug treatment for high cholesterol and what is its function

Statins are the drug treatment and they block cholesterol production but do not remove the existing plaque buildup

Which foods are considered good for cholesterol

Avocados, nuts, and olive oil

What is considered a good total cholesterol count

Cholesterol under 200 mg/dl is considered good for adults




LDL under 130 mg/dl and HDL over 40mg/dl

What factors influence blood flow

Blood pressure and resistance influence blood flow

How does blood pressure influence blood flow

Blood flows from areas of higher pressure to lower pressures

How is blood pressure influenced by resistance

Resistance increases blood pressure

What factors influence the increase in resistance

Increase of blood viscosity (high level of erythrocytes




Increase of vessel length (result of weight gain)




Decrease in lumen diameter (Increase in vasoconstriction







What is blood pressure

the force per unit area that blood exerts against the inside wall of a vesssel



Where is blood pressure greatest and least

BP is greatest in the aorta and least in the vena cava

TRUE OR FALSE




Blood flow is not proportional to difference in BP between two locations

FALSE, blood flow is proportional to the difference in BP between two locations




It is also inversely proportional to resistance



What is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

Systolic pressure is the highest pressure generated during ventricular systole when the artery is maximally stretched




Diastolic pressure is the lowest pressure during ventricular diastole when the artery recoils no further

How is arterial pressure expressed and what is considered an average pressure

Arterial pressure is expressed as a ratio, systolic over diastolic, an average pressure is 120/80

How is diastolic pressure generated

Diastolic pressure is the residual pressure stored in elastic arteries from systole and then used in diastole to produce a constant flow

What is pulse pressure, how is it calculated

Pulse pressure is the additonal pressure placed on the arteries from when the heart is resting (diastolic BP) to when the heart is contracting


(systolic BP)




Pulse pressure is calculated by taking the difference between systolic and diastolic BP


120/80 BP = PP of 40 120-80=40

What is the significance of Pulse Pressure

Pulse Pressure is the measure of the elasticity and recoil of arteries, the higher the PP the stiffer the vessels (arteriosclerosis)

What is the Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), how is it calculated

MAP is the average measure of the BP forces on the arteries




MAP = diastolic BP + 1/3 PP




BP = 120/80


MAP = 80 + 40/3 = 93




MAP indicates how well body tissues and organs are receiving blood

What are the 3 venous return mechanisms

Skeletal muscle pump- within limbs




Respiratory pump- within thoracic cavity- diaphragm




Venous valves- within the veins, prevent back flow

Define resistance

amount of friction the blood experiences as it is transported through the blood vessels




blood flow is always opposed by resistance,


due to the contact between blood and the blood vessel wall



TRUE OR FALSE




The thicker the fluid, the more viscous it is, and the greater its resistance to flow

TRUE, if a person is dehydrated or has a high level of formed elements, their blood will be more viscous and have a greater resistance to flow

Which disease has a serious effect on resistance, why

atherosclerosis is the process of plaque narrowing the lumen of blood vessels, which increases the resistance as blood moves through vessels


What are baroreceptors and where are they located

Baroreceptors are specialized sensory nerve endings that respond to stretch. They detect stretch of the blood vessel wall as blood volume changes.




They are located in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses (specifically the tunica externa)

Which two cranial nerves can be innervated due to BP levels

Vagus- aortic reflex




Glossophayngeal- carotid sinus reflex




Low BP - baroreceptors decreases frequency of nerve signals




High BP - barorecpetors increase frequency of nerve signals

Which hormones participate in BP regulation

Epinephrine/norepinephrine


Angiotensin II, Antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide.

Explain the renin-angiotensin system

The liver produces angiotensinogen, Renin is released by the kidneys, in response to low BP or stimulation by the sympathetic system.


Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II, which stimulates the secretion of aldosterone. This increases BP

How does aldosterone help maintain BP

Increases the absorption of sodium and water in the kidneys, decreasing their loss in urine

How does antidiuretic hormone help maintain BP

Increases the absorption of water in the kidneys, decreasing its loss in urine




In extreme cases, such as hemorrhaging, extensive release of ADH occurs, causing which increases peripheral resistance and BP.





How does Atrial natriuretic peptide maintain BP

ANP is released from the heart, in response to an increase in stretch of atrial walls, due to increased blood volume and increased venous return.




ANP stimulates vasodilation, decreasing peripheral resistance, and increases urine output, decreasing blood volume.




AND is an antagonist of aldosterone = lower BP

What is syncope

Syncope is a non traumatic fainting spell

What is the cause of vasovagal syncope

lack of blood flow to the brain; results in slow heart beat

What is the cause of cardiogenic syncope

The SA node is not properly working

TRUE OR FALSE




Dehydration can cause orthostatic syncope

TRUE, dehydration can cause dizziness which can result in fainting; a fast heart beat

What is shock

an inadequate cardiac output resulting in the inability to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen and nutrients to meet metabolic needs of the body

What are the various types of shock

Hypovolemic- not enough fluid in the tank,


venous return low, massive blood loss




Cardiogenic- poor cardiac output, massive heart attack, least likely to improve




Vascular- sepsis, illness, secondary cause from infection/illness

How is hypertension treated

Decrease sodium intake- decreases venous return to heart




Decrease stress- meditation initiates parasympathetic system




Weight loss- decreases resistance, reduces vessel length

What are the prescription drugs used to treat hypertension

Diuretics- increasing urination; loss of fluids lower the BP




Vasodiolators- decreases resistance




Both scripts cause erectile dysfunction

What are the two classifications of hypertension, and what are the causes

Primary hypertension- cause is unknown




Secondary hypertension- increased secretion of aldosterone, due to a tumor of adrenal gland, plaque buildup in renal arteries causes low blood flow, or hypersecretion of epinephrine/norepinephrine due to tumor



What is the function of the lymphatic system

Fluid transport- lymph, similar to interstitial fluid




Facilitate immune response- lymphocyte maturation




Drainage- returns excess interstitial fluid back to heart





What are the various lymphatic structures

Primary- Thymus & red bone marrow; formation and maturation of lymphocytes




Secondary- spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, appendix, MALT (mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue, payer's patches); house lymphocytes and other immune cells, immune response is initiated

How does interstitial fluid become lymph

Interstitial fluid drains into lymphatic capillaries in the tissue spaces between cells

Which vein(s) does the lymph drain into

Lymph from the right lymphatic duct drains into the right subclavian vein




Lymph from the thoracic duct drains into the left subclavian vein





What makes lymphatic capillaries highly permeable

Adjacent cells overlap forming minivalves




Anchored by collagen filaments preventing collapse



What type of tissue are lymphatic tissues made of

Reticular-loose connective tissue



What type of cells make up lymphatic system

Lymphocytes (T&B cells)


Plasma cells


Macrophages


Dendritic cells


Reticular cells





What is the function of lymph nodules

proliferation of lymphocytes

TRUE OR FALSE




Infected lymph nodes are firm and tender

FALSE, infected lymph nodes are not firm, yet tender. cancerous nodes are firm and not tender.

Describe lymphoma

Cancer of B lymphocytes, nontender, enlarged lymph node, often in neck or axillary region




Two categories: Hodgkin lymphoma- Reed-Sternberg cell affecting young adults (16-35) and people over 60. If caught early it is treatable




Non-Hodgkin lymphoma- much more common, some are aggressive and fatal, other slow-growing and responsive to treatment.



Describe lymphodema

Elephantitis; accumulation of interstitial fluid occurring due to the interference with lymph drainage in part of the body, pain and swelling occurs. caused by blockage;scar tissue/trauma

Describe Adenopathy

Enlarged and tender lymph nodes, caused by infection, strep throat

Where are payer's patches found

Ileum of the small intestine, they defend against foreign materials that come in contact with mucosal membranes within the digestive system

What is the function of the spleen

As the largest lymphatic organ, the spleen serves as a blood reservoir, specifically the red pulp, and also a filter for blood, phagocytosis of bacteria, and old, defective erythrocytes and platelets.

What is the function of the tonsils

Protecting against foreign materials that may be inhaled or ingested. Tonsils trap materials in "crypts" or invaginated outer edges, increasing surface area



What are the two components of the immune system

Innate(nonspecific) defense




Adaptive (specific) defense

What is the function of the immune system

To initiate defense mechanisms (innate & adaptive) to resist intrusion of foreign matter that enters the body

Describe innate immunity

local & nonspecific, wards off pathogens




nose hairs and mucous membranes


acidic juice of stomach


acidic secretion of vagina


urine flow prevents bacteria growth


skin is an impervious barrier

What are the two lines of defense that make up innate immunity

1st line- barriers: skin & mucous membranes


chemicals: gastric juices, sweat, sebum




2nd line- phagocytes: macrophages, dendritic


interferons: complex protein antiviral compound, limit/inhibits infection


Natural Killer cells- attack tumors


Complement Pathway-







Describe the Complement Pathway

These proteins enhance certain immune, allergic, and inflammatory reactions by:




Coating pathogen surfaces, enhancing phagocytosis




Enhancing inflammation, histamine release, increases blood vessel permeability and attracts phagocytes by chemotaxis




Poking holes and lysis (exploding)

What is chemotaxis

Chemical secretion that attracts macrophages and neutrophils, facilitates in phagocytosis

What are phagocytes

Cells that consume foreign matter, "eat" bacteria, viruses, and dead or injured body cells




alveolar macrophages (lungs)


dendritic cells (skin)


microglia (brain)


macrophages (spleen, red marrow, and lymph nodes)

What are Natural Killers

cells that kill a variety of viruses and tumor cells




found in blood, spleen, lymph nodes, and red marrow




attack cells displaying abnormal MHC antigens

What are the three stages of inflammation

Vasodiolation & increased permeability of vessels


-caused by histamine




Phagocyte emigration




Tissue repair




Process is to trap microbes, toxins, or foreign material & begin tissue repair

What is an abscess

Accumulation of pus in a confined space not open to the outside- pimples & boils




Ulcer walled off infection

What are the benefits of a fever

Intensifies effects of interferons, inhibits bacterial growth, speeds up tissue repair

Describe adaptive immunity

Systemic- goes out into the lymph organs in search of specific antigens




Specific- specific lymphocytes for specific antigens




Memory- vaccines and booster shots, in reserve for later battle

What are the two types of adaptive immunity

Humeral: liquid- blood, lymph, interstitial fluid


any abnormal antigens in fluid, B-cells




Cell mediated: specific antigens, bacteria/tumors presented to the T-cells (prima donnas)



Where do T-cells and B-cells mature

T-cells in the thymus




B-cells in the red bone marrow

What are antibodies

Protective proteins (immunogolbulins) released


by plasma cells that bind to a specific antigen

What are antigens

Anything that causes a reaction within the immune system




microbes, bacterial toxins, pollen, transplanted organs, incompatible blood cells

TRUE OR FALSE



Type 1 MHCs are antigen producing cells




Type 2 MHCs are all cells

FALSE, type 1 are human cell bodies




type 2 are antigen producing cells

What are cytokines

small, soluble proteins that regulate and facilitate immune system activity

How do Natural Killer cells work
Perforin insert into antigen, form pores, enzymes enter the pores and antigen degrade
Which chromosome is involved with the development of MHCs
Chromosome 6
What is considered ACTIVE immunity and PASSIVE immunity

ACTIVE - vaccines and immunizations, flu shot


infection/illness exposure




PASSIVE - breastfeeding

What are APCs


Antigen Presenting Cells


macrophages


dendrites


B lymphocytes


cells that "gobble up" antigens and present them to T-cells to be destroyed

What qualifies something to be an antigen

When it stimulates the immune system to react


toxins, infections, tumors, organ transplants

Where does immunocompetence take place

B-cells become immunocompetent in the red bone marrow


T-cells become immunocompetent in the thymus

What does immunocompetence mean

When B & T cells experience the + & - selection


they are able to identify the body's own MHCs


as well as not reacting to the body's own


antigens

What are plasma cells
Plasma cells (effector cells) release antibodies and cytokines that facilitate in the defense against antigens
What is the difference between CD4 and CD8 cells

CD4 (helper cells) facilitate in the destruction of antigens


CD8 (cytotoxic cells) kill antigens



What are memory cells
cells that live in the body, awaiting the arrival of specific anitgens