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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
structural isomers
differ in the covalent arrangement of thier atoms
geometric isomers
differ in their spatial arrangement (can't be twisted)
enantiomers
mirror images of each other
hydroxyl group
-OH, alchohols
carbonyl gruop
C=O
aldehyde
if carbonyl group is found at end of carbon skeleton
ketone
if carbonyl group is found in middle of carbon skeleton
carboxyl group
(COOH)
C=O
-OH
carboxyl groups are called
carboxylic acids
amino group
NH2
amino groups are called
amines, bases
amino groups form
the backbones of proteins
sulfhydryl group
-SH
end in -thiols
phosphate group
(-OPO3) -2
phosphate groups are
anions
most macromolecules are
polymers
monomers are connected by
dehydration synthesis
monomers are broken apart by
hydrolysis
carbohydrates are used for
food and building material
monosaccharides ratio is
1:2:1
polysaccharides are connected by a covalent bond called
a glycosidic linkage
plants store sugars in form of
starch
animals store sugars in form of
glycogen
lipids are
fats, building blocks
lipids are made of
glycerol and 3 fatty acids
a lipid with a double bond between carbons is
unsaturated
a lipid with no double bonds between carbons is
saturated
phospholipds are
major compnoents of cell membranes
phospholipids contain
2 fatty acids, one phosphate group
the head of a phospholipid is
polar
the tail of a phospholipid is
non polar, hydrophobic
steroids are lipids that contain
cholesterol and hormones
steriods have __ rings
4 fused rings
proteins are made from
amino acids
proteins contain
an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a hydrogen atom
there are ___ kinds of amino acids
20
amino acids are linked by
peptide bonds
nucleic acids function as
nucleotides, building blocks
nucleic acids consist of
5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and nitrogeneous bases
DNA contains
Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosin
bases in DNA are grouped
AT, G-C
CHONPS
proteins
CHON
nitrogeneous bases
CHO
carbs and lipids
RNA contains
adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosin
adenine and guanine are
purines
thymine and cytosin are
pyrimidines
bases in RNA are grouped
A-U, G-C
RNA is ___ stranded
single
DNA is _____ stranded
double