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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the 14 facial bones;
2 Nasal, 2 Maxillae, 2 Lacrimals, 2 Zygomatics, 2 Palatines, 2 Inferior Nasal Conchae, Vomer, Mandible
Name the parts of the skeletal system;
Bones, Joints, Cartilages, Ligaments
How many bones are in the Axial Skeleton?
How many bones are in the Appendicular skeleton?
What are the functions of bones?
Support (of the body), Protection (of soft organs), Movement (due to attached skeletal muscles), Storage (of minerals & fats), Blood cell formation.
What minerals do the bones store?
Ca, Phosphate, Magnesium & sulfur.
What are the 2 basic types of bone tissue?
Compact bone (homogeneous), Spongy bone (porous)
Describe long bones;
Typically longer than wide, Have a shaft w/heads @ both ends, Contain mostly compact bone (ex; Femur, Humerus)
Describe short bones;
Generally cube shaped, Contain mostly spongy bone (ex; Carpals, Tarsals)
Describe flat bones;
Thin & flattened, Usually curved, Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone (ex; Skull, ribs, sternum)
Describe the Diaphysis of a long bone;
Shaft, Composed of compact bone.
Describe The Epiphysis of a long bone;
(growth plate) Ends of the bone, Composed mostly of spongy bone.
(Long Bone)
What is the Periosteum?
The outside covering of the diaphysis, it is a fibrous connective tissue membrane, it is secured to the bone by Sharpey's Fibers. (has arteries running through it that supply bone cells w/nutrients)
(Long Bone)
What is the Articular cartilage?
The outside covering of the epiphyses, is made of hyaline cartilage, it decreases friction @ joint surfaces.
(Long Bone)
What is the Meduallary cavity?
Cavity of the shaft, it contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults & red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants.
What are bone markings?
Surface features of bones, sites of attachments for muscles, tendons & ligaments, passages for nerves & blood vessels.
What are the categories of bone markings?
Projections & processes (grow out from the bone surface), Depressions or cavities (indentations).
What is a Osteon?
(Haversian System) Name for each Complex consisting of central canal & matrix rings.
How do you remember which markings are Projections & which are Depressions?
All the terms beginning w/T are projections & the terms beginning w/F (except Facet) are depressions.
What is the Central (Haversian) Canal?
Opening in the center of an Osteon, Carries blood vessels & nerves.
What is a Perforating (Volkman's) Canal?
Canal perpendicular to the central canal, Carries blood vessels & nerves.
What are the Lacunae?
Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes), arranged in concentric rings.
What are the Lamellae?
Rings around the central canal, sites of lacunae.
What are the Canaliculi?
Tiny canals that radiate from the central canal to lacunae (look like cracks from the Lacuna through the Lamella) They form a transport system.
What is the embryotic skeleton made up of?
Hyaline cartilage, during development most is replaced by bone.
Where does Cartilage remain p birth?
Bridge of the nose, ears, trachea, bronchi, parts of ribs, joints, discs of vertabrae.
What part of bone allows for growth of long bones during childhood?
Epiphyseal plates, new cartilage is continuously formed, older cartilage becomes ossified, cartilage is broken down, bone replaces cartilage.
What are Osteocytes?
Mature bone cells
What are Osteoblasts?
Bone-forming cells
What are Osteoclasts?
Bone-destroying cells, They break down bone matrix for remodeling & release of calcium.
Bone remodeling is a process by which cells?
Both Osteoblasts & Osteoclasts
What is a closed (simple) fx?
Break that does not penetrate the skin
What is a open (compound) fx?
Broken bone penetrates through the skin
Bone fractures are tx by;
Reduction & Immobilization (realignment of the bone
Explain the repain of bone fx;
Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed, Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus, Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus, Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch.
What 3 parts make up the Bony Thorax?
Sternum, Ribs, Thoracic vertebrae
What bones make up the Appendicular Skeleton?
Limbs (appendages), Pectoral Girdle, Pelvic Girdle
What 2 bones is the Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle composed of?
Clavicle (collarbone) & Scapula (shoulder blade), These bones allow the upper limbs to have exceptionally free movement.
What single bone forms the arm?
Where on the Humerus does the deltoid attach?
Deltoid Tuberosity (mid humerus)
Where does the Humerus articulate w/ the Ulnar & radius?

What 2 bones make up the forearm?
Ulna & Radius
What bones make up the hand?
Carpals (wrist), Metacarpals (palm), Phalanges (fingers)