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82 Cards in this Set

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Sex Linked Traits
trait codes for by a gene on a sex chromosome
Recessive
An allele that is expressed when inherited by both parents
Humans
are animal species share common ancestors with primates. Similar to other primates
Habitual Bipedalism
Humans are habitual bipedalism
Cultural Anthropology
Anthropologists live with a different culture and leans and studies their culture
Archaeology Antrhopology
Dig up artifacts that are left behind by people who are no longer living
Linguistics Anthropology
study of language
Biological Anthropology
human evolution, evolution of non-primates. Fossil records, genetics, primatology
Osteology
study of bones
evolution
change over time
spontaneous generation
everything on the planet was created/generated at a certain time. (divine creation)
How old is the earth
4004 b.c.
1700's
Age of enlightenment. science shifted to an emphasis on empirical data. Spontaneous generation does not fall w/empirical thought.
empirical
knowledge gained by experience, gained through the senses.
Linnaeus
put together first classification system of organisms.
taxonomy
grouping of animals that share characteristics. (eg. mammals)
genus/species
homo/sapiens homo/erectus
Lamarck
french scientist, proposed evolution. theory of acquired traits, thought if you acquired traits, you could pass on.
catatrophism
extinction due to catastrophic events
Malthus
english economist looked at life forms and resources of dependance. populations tend to increase, resulting in competition for natural resources, which results in differential survival.
Lyell
one of the geologists that studied Strata and came up with the unifomitarianism, (takes a long time) of change
Punctuated equilibrium
putts catatrophism and uniformitarianism together
uniformitarianism
things take a long time to change
Darwin
published "orgin of species by means of natural selection"
5 years on a ship, collecting plants and animal specimens, sent back to england to stukdy.
wallace
nat selection also. co-presented papers with Darwin
selective force
the aspects of environment that demand change (eg. diet)
Darwin's 4 theory of evolution via natural selection
1)variation exists between a species
2)population increase
3)resources are finite, limited
3)survival of the fittest
economy of nature
when organism reaches stopping point in environment because no change is needed (sharks)
tempo of evolution
long, slow process, lengthy. very small changes
gaps
the source of new variants.pattern of inheritance.
Gregor Mendel
1866 (published) Mendel cross pollunated pea plants over and over again, and ended up with lots of generations of pea plants and studied the characteristics. traits such as tall, shrot, color of flower (purple or white) green or yellow peas round or wrinkled.
Mendel's 4 princples
1)inheritance. one particle from each parent. each allele is descrete-meaning maintains the individual identity it pairs with another, but does not combine.
2)principle of segregation-prior to offspring, each pair of alleles seperates each allele contained in seperate gamete cells.
3)principle of independant assortment-each pair of alleles has one trait of each trait, not 2 of one trait
4)principle of dominance and recessiveness
allele
variant of gene (genes code for trait)
multiple allele series
more than 2 alleles (ex.- ABO blood group. 3 varients, alleles gene that codes for blood type)
Genotype
AA aa Aa
Phenotype
physical. all the traits that make you.
what is a cell made of
cytoplasm-outside
nucleus-inside, where the chromosomes
chromosomes- are in the nucleaus, containing genetic material.
how many chromosome do humans have?
23 pairs=46 individual
what are the 1-22 cells called?
autosome and they come in pairs
xx and xy?
female and male
locus
particular locations on a chromosome
zygote
the chromosomes in a pair are exactly alike.
chromosome
DNA molecule
DNA
blueprint of you made of amino acids and proteins. Organisms made up of proteins.
Mitosis
continous process. cells dies, news ones are made through this process. prior to division, duplicate is made. then they line up in the nucleus and divide. each new cell divides and carries on.
Meiosis
gamete formation (egg, sperm) formaiton. final phase, you have cells that contain 23 pair of eahc chromosome. pair does not replicate. line up and cell divide. this ends formation of egg or sperm, only happens in ovaries or testes.
what can natural selection work on?
the individual, not the genetic material. Goes natural selection--fitness (reproductive success)-pass on genes
genetic mutation
creates new alleles.
point mutations
effects alleles of one gene. (eg. sickle cell allele resulted from the deletion of gene. if you have 2 alleles you get the disease)
chromosomal mutations
involves more than one gene. this allele trades places w/another. you can be missing an entire allele-eg. trisomy 21. (downs syndrome)- 21st is smallest chromosome, 3 copies of chromosome instead of 2.
Mutation a bad thing??
Not always, the more variation a population contains, good thing.
what can increase mutations?
environmental factors like--heat, sun, nicotine. In order to be important the mutation needs to be in the gamete. IT IS RANDOM. Mutations do not happen because the environment needs it.
Mutation adaptive-
it is equipped to live in an environment.
Mutation nonadaptive
not equipped, tends to decrease fitness success, not passed on as frequently, selected against.
Mutation neutral
no effect
Autosomal dominant
just need one copy of the gene to express
autosomal recessive
need two copies to express (only one copy means just carrier)
y linked
always will be expressed. y has very little genetic material
examples of autosomal dominant disorders
huntington disease. is passed on because this shows up later in life.
macroevolution
accumulation of microevolutionanry changes over many generations. documented in fossil record
habitat
the environment(your address)
niche
the role a species in a habitat. your job, resource utilization. ie-nocturnal primates and active day time primates
species
a population that can reproduce together, one species can not reproduce with another species
microevolution
natural selection. happens at the individual level. changes in the allele frequencies from generation to generation.
what are the evolutionary forces
1-mutation
2-nat-selection
3-genetic
4-gene flow
5-migration
5-non-randommating
genetic drift
Random fluctuation of alleles in a population. greater effect in small population when no new genes are introduced
gene flow
when genetic material is transferred but not permanent.
non-random mating
getting to choose who to mate with. can change allele frequency.
bottleneck
drastic reduction in # number of individuals in a population
selective forces of environment
an aspect of environment that results differental fitness (reproductive success)
physiological adaptation
developmental adaptation (high altitude- greater lung volume if grow up at higher altitude)
hypoxia
ups red cells production
behavioral adaptation
the main way humans adapt
biomedical anthropology
loos at disease patterns
infectious
defined to be caused by external,organism that comes into the body (micro-organism)
contageous
from human to human
non-contagous
can't go from human to human. needs a vector, that can transfer it. ie-malaria-mosquito
degenerative
getting older, more diseases
factors
genetic, environmental. (diet, pollution)
endemic
always there, no rapid increase (malaria)
epidemic
very dramatic increase in # of cases.
pandemic
epidemic over large geographical area. (AIDS, bubonic plague--killed 20 mill europeans in 6 years)