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82 Cards in this Set

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What is anthropology?
the study of humanity - our physical characteristics as animals, and our unique non-biological characteristics we call culture. The subject is generally broken down into three subdisciplines: biological (physical) anthropology, cultural (social) anthropology, and archaeology.
The scientific method?
Observation
Question
Hypothesis
Prediction
Experiment
Analysis
Decision
What is a hypothesis?
Proposed explanation for natural phenomenon.
If agree hypothesis is _______.
If disagree hypothesis is _______.
1. supportive
2. disproved
Don't say prove a hypothesis, only support because...
There may be new info in the future.
What is a theory?
The explanation of related observations based upon supported hypothesis and verrified multiple times.
example: Heliocentric Theory
A theory explains ______.
How nature works.
Science vs. Religion
the study of the natural world
vs.
a set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices pertaining to supernatural power
______ are the end point of science. They are supported by such abundant observational and experimental evidence they are no longer questioned.
Theories
Genetics
the study of the hereditary material in living things.
_______ helps us under stand evolution and variation within species, vatiation among human groups, variation within human groups.
Genetics
Biochemical Genetics
studies the structure, function and changes in DNA
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid) provides the information for building, operating and repairing organisms.
gene
A segment of DNA with the instructions to make proteins.
Genome
A map of all the genes that make up a species.
Human Genome Project
begun in 1990 to sequence all base pairs and identify all genes, results published in 2001.
We have a ___ % difference between chimp and human in coding segments and ____ % difference in noncoding segments.
1, 3 = 4%
Mendelian (chromosomal) genetics
Studies the ways in which chromosomes transmit genes across the generations.
Chromosome
a set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices pertaining to supernatural power
Mendek's pea plant experiments.
He relized that traits are passed to offspings as discrete units and there are alternative versions of genes.
phenotype
The observable traits or characteristics of an organism, for example hair color, weight, or the presence or absence of a disease. the class to which that organism belongs as determined by the description of the physical and behavioral characteristics of the organism, for example its size and shape, its metabolic activities and its pattern of movement.
genotype
the class to which that organism belongs as determined by the description of the actual physical material made up of DNA that was passed to the organism by its parents at the organism's conception.
allele
An alternative form of a gene. Usually 2 for every gene. Sometimes 3
Mendel's Law of Segregation
Sex cells contain one of each pair of allels
Homozygous
if two allels of same kind
heterozygous
if two allels of different kind
dominant allele
the one that is expressed
recessive allele
that is not expressed, but is still there
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
Chromosomes from seperate pairs are inherited independently
Population
a group of organisms from the same species that often, but not always, chose mates from within the group.
Gene pool
all the genes in a population expressed as allele frequency
evolution (fact)
All present forms of life arose from other ancestral forms that were different
Mutation
a change on the DNA sequence, producing an altered gene.
Genetic drift
the various random processes that affect gene frequencies in small, relatively isolated populations.
Gene flow
the process by which genes pass from the gene pool of one population to that of another through interbreeding
Natural selection
The process whereby some organisms in a species have certain inherited variations that give them an advantage over others
Natural selection proceeds through the mechanism of _______.
differential reproduction
Evolutionary fitness is not biggest or strongest, but...
individuals success in possing genes to next generation.
Example of Darwin's finches
Medium ground finch. large beak for seeds. drought caused decrease in 1977. 11mm can crack seeds. 10.5 will not try. overall beak grew after drought.
3 points of Darwin's finches:
1. evolution is not uni-directional
2. variation must be present for natural selection to work.
3. praticular trait selected for dependent on enivironment slected trait can change according to environment
population genetics
investigates natural selection and causes of genetic cariation, stability and change in breeding populations, including the formation of new species
species
a population that consists of organisms able to interbreed and produce viable and fertile offspring.
Founder effect
when a new population is formed by a few individuals whose genetic diversity is not representative of the parent population.
geographic isolation
when a physical barrier between parts of a species prevents any breeding between the 2 groups.
Adaptive radiation
the formation of many new species following the availibility of new environments
anagenesis
gradual evolution of one species into another
cladogenesis
one ancestral species becomes 2 or more descendent species
4 modes of locomotion
1. quadrupedialism
2. vertical clinging and leaping
3. brachiation (arm swing)
4. bipedalism
taxonomy
classification using nested sets of categories
Primates is what classification system?
Order
biomonial nomenclature
assignment of a unique name, in 2 parts, to every species
Phylogeny
Classification system is based on _______ - genetic relatedness based on common ancestry.
Derived trait
sometime recent
Ancestral trait
same as it was in ancestor
Whenm reconstructing phylogeny, need to use ______ features.
derived
fossil
organic remains of once living organisms
How are fossils made?
if remains are quickly buried in sediment
Fossils are exposed to surface through...
natural erosion or uplifting or human agency
fossil species (hominid)
The species here are listed roughly in order of appearance in the fossil record
Biases of the fossil record
need to know how to understand what fossil records can say
Our closest living relative is the ________.
chimp
_______ is one of the most salient features that set us apart from the chimp.
Bipedalism
When did we become bipedal?
land became cool and dry and not as much forest.
First species to make stone tools.
Oldowan
anthros meaning ______.
human
logos meaning _______.
study
4 sub-fields of anthropology
1. biological
2. cultural
3. linguistic
4. archaeology
4 modes of locomotion
1. quadrupedialism
2. vertical clinging and leaping
3. brachiation (arm swing)
4. bipedalism
taxonomy
classification using nested sets of categories
Primates is what classification system?
Order
biomonial nomenclature
assignment of a unique name, in 2 parts, to every species
Phylogeny
Classification system is based on _______ - genetic relatedness based on common ancestry.
Derived trait
sometime recent
Ancestral trait
same as it was in ancestor
Whenm reconstructing phylogeny, need to use ______ features.
derived
fossil
organic remains of once living organisms
How are fossils made?
if remains are quickly buried in sediment
Fossils are exposed to surface through...
natural erosion or uplifting or human agency
fossil species (hominid)
The species here are listed roughly in order of appearance in the fossil record
Biases of the fossil record
need to know how to understand what fossil records can say
Our closest living relative is the ________.
chimp
_______ is one of the most salient features that set us apart from the chimp.
Bipedalism