Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social Organization
-How society is organized to get things done.
-includes institutions and social structure
social structure
-descriptions of groups that make up society and relationships between them
-is part of social organization
-social relations organized around a particular theme/task
-part of social organization
-Many practices, belief, social structure that pertain to family and family relations
Kinship-diversity in terms
-can differ between cultures depending on how cultures overlap
-spanish and english have different words for same definition because of cultural overlap
-yap have chit nag, which is different than mother because lack of cultural overlap
Unilineal Descent
Descent if traced through only one sex

Ie: Patrilineal & mattrilineal
Patrilineal Descent
Belong to group of my father
Matrilineal Descent
Belong to group of my mother
Bilateral Descent
Equal descent through mother and father
-A group of people who can trace descent in a unilinear matter from a common ancestor.
-You can't marry someone in the same lineage as you
-Dala = people in your lineage
 You belong to the group of your mother
 Both men and women belong to a matrilineage, but only women pass it on.
 You belong to the group of your father
 Both men and women belong to patrilineage, but only men pass it on.
 In U.S., a vestigial piece is that when a couple marries, they inherit the male’s last name
o A group of people who believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor in a unilinear matter, but they cannot demonstrate all the links
o Based on stipulated descent
o Clans contain lineages
 If two lineages both descendents from a common ancestor way way back (like you know you are somehow related to Abe Lincoln) but they don’t remember how, those lineages belong in the same clan.
clan from father
clan from mother
-The belief that people are descended from animals, plants, and other natural objects. Symbols of these natural ancestors, known as totems, are often associated with clans (groups of families tracing common descent). By representing desirable individual qualities (such as the swiftness of a deer) and helping to explain the mythical origin of the clan, totems reinforce clan identity and solidarity.

 Example: Dolphin clan on Yap island.
 The people claim to be descendants of the “spirit sisters”, who were two sisters who were half dolphin and half human.
 The two sisters everyday would take off their tails to walk on the island and watch the men dance.
 One day a man discovered the tails and hid them. The sisters came back and discovered they were gone. They were crying.
 Man told the sisters to come and marry him because he could feed them and take care of them. So they married him and had children. AKA dolphin clan
• Special collection of relatives you get
• An eco-centered network called bilateral kin
• A kindred is NOT a group
o Group is common identity that everyone in it shares
• In kindred, people don’t even know each other.
• No one has the same kindred as each other
• Each individual has their own friends & relatives- their own kindred.
• An individual’s kindred will last until he dies.
Corporate groups )corporate functions)
o Collectively controlling a resource
 Descent groups can be corporate groups and have corporate functions
 EX: land. I don’t individually own my land, but my entire lineage owns it.
 If someone wanted to buy my desk in my office, I can’t sell it because it belongs to the company
o Kindreds do not have corporate functions
 Just a network of people, not a group
 There is corporate behavior
 EX: Nuclear family house. It’s your parents’ house, but you have your own room. You eat the food your parents buy
Functions of Marriage - Descent
Produces descendants
 Socially legitimate heirs that are eligible for all the groups’ rights
 EX: King and Queen’s child becomes the prince. The child born from the King’s mistress is not prince.
 Establishes next generation of peeps
Fuctions of Marriage- Alliance
Establishes alliances
 When you get married, you get a whole new set of relatives
•Strangers now become allies
Affines (affinal relatives)
Affine = in-laws
- When people are married, there is creation of affinal relatives; strangers now become allies
Incest Taboo
-coined by Claude Levi-Strauss
• Incest= prohibition on sex, not marriage
• He believed that incest taboo divided world into two types
o People you can have sex with
o People you can’t have sex with
• This helps people meet strangers to build more alliances.
• Builds a social solidary.
o Marrying one spouse
o Serial monogamy
 Marry one spouse at a time
 Ex: hollywood
polygamy (polyandry & polygyny)
o Marrying more than one spouse
 Practice of having more than one husband.
 Practice of having more than one wife
Observations on polygyny
 There is going to be an inbalance in the sexes.
 This means is men have many wives, there are gonna be men who are not going to have any wives.
 A general pattern is that men marry later in life and woman marry earlier in life.
 Men may marry in the thirties
 Women may be married as children or teenage
 Having many wives can mean many things
• Prestige
• Heirs
• Larger labor force
Himalayan agriculturists & polyandry
 They have a kind of pre-industrial agriculture
 There is a scarcity of arable land
• Land that is suitable for agriculture
o The land is held corporately
 The land is not fragmented
 The oldest would be the leader
o Fraternal polyandry
 A woman marries a set of brothers.
 All the sons inherit the land from their fathers
 The land is not fragmented
o This makes sense in the context the material conditions of the Himalayas
social organization and material conditions
 demographic is a material condition
 within context, certain different cultures and practice may make sense
ex: himalyans and polyandry
o However, we must not think of material conditions as a cause and affect relationship
o Not every similar material condition has the same solution or the same marriage system
o An inheritance practice where the eldest son inherits everything
o The younger sons would not get anything, and they may not get married or have children
o 1,200 years ago, this was the solution to the lack of land in Scandinavia.
o The younger sons got glory by being Vikings
o In Ireland, the 19th century, there was a scarcity of land
 Solution was primogeniture
 The younger sons made a life by coming to the United States.
land tenure
 Ex. Some guy has twenty acres of land
• He has two sons and two daughters when he dies
o There is a rule land goes to the sons
 The land is divided equally between the sons
 For each following generation, the amount of land decreases.
 Ultimately the land parcels are fragmented and become eventually become too small to support a social unit
• All things governing the inheritance of land.
o the practice of marrying outside of one’s group
o clans and lineages are exogamus
 exogamus are the groups
 you must marry someone outside of your clan or lineage
o This is a prohibition on marriage
o Incest is a prohibition on sex
o the practice of marrying inside one’s own group
 doesn’t mean someone in your family
 can mean someone in your class or position
 like the Rockafellers marry someone of the same status
 Racial endogamy
 You don’t marry your brother or sister, but someone of the same race
Caste system of India
 Caste of Hindu India
 4 castes with subcastes
• you are born a member of a caste and die in that caste
• it determines your occupation
• you are expected to marry within your own caste
post-marital residence
Rules and practices that a bride and groom marry that determine where they go to live
Virilocal residence
o where the married couple relocates to the groom’s community.
 Could even live in the same house as his parents
o Keeps sons with their fathers
Uxorilocal residence
o where the married couple goes to live in brides community.
 Could live in a rigor compound home with the wife’s people
o Keeps the mothers and daughters together
o Example, the Iroquois long house hold all the women of many generations
Neolocal Residence
o the married couple establish a new house in a new communitry
o spreading the seed
o we seek better opportunities elsewhere
Avunculocal Residence
o Bride and groom go to live with the groom’s mother’s brother or the maternal uncle
o Find only societies where they practices matrilineal descent
o Keeps the men of a matrilineage together while dispersing the women.
o This means that property are passed down only in one lineage
o A payment from the groom’s people to the bride’s people
o Not the purchase of a bride
 May be called “bride price” in older times
o May using very special forms of wealth
 More distinct than other forms of wealth in mundane everyday things
o Signifies new relationship between her people and his people
o Can also because it compensates for the loss of her labor
o In Southern Africa, u suto
 Cattle used to pay
 So big, require installments
o Payment from the bride’s group to the groom’s people
o Quite common in Europe, even today
o In America, bulk of the payment come from the bride’s family
o Think of Dowry as a form of inheritance for the daughter
 In most systems the assets of the father who died is usually split amongst the sons
 The dowry is an early inheritance for daughters
 Though daughter may not have control of it
bride service
o The husband goes and lives with his wife and wife’s people and he works for the wife’s people.
o For a set period of time, then completed
o In Sahara
 A bride’s man will hunt for the bride’s people
marriage exchanges
o Very common in pacific island and native Americans of Northwest
o Simultaneous exchange of wealth from Bride’s people to groom’s people and Groom to Brides
o The forms of wealth are gender
 There are wealths particular to each gender
 They each give something specific to their wealth
 Grooms provide male wealth to the bride’s people
 Brides provided female wealth to the Groom’s people
 This is rather competitive
 Each side wants to give more to the other side
• This is how you win
• Competitive gifting
Ascending Generation (1st, 2ndm 3rd, etc)
 The generation above
 Your ancestors and their siblings
 1st ascending generation
 Parents, aunts, uncle
 2nd ascending generation
 grandparents, great-aunts, great-uncles
 3rd ascending generation
 great grandparents
descending generation (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc)
 1st descending generation
 children, nephews, niece
 2nd descending generation
 grandchildren
 3rd descending generation
 great grandchildren and such
Ego's own generation
 0
 self, cousin, siblings
Matrilateral & patrilateral genealogical kin
o 1. Matrilateral Biological Kin Type
 where for any kin type the first letter is an M
 through the mother
o 2. Patrilateral Biological King type
 where for any king type the first letter is F
 through the father
Parallel cousins
 biological kin type are children of same sex siblings
 Patrilateral Parallel cousins
 Cousins from dad’s side
 Materilateral parallel cousins
 Cousins from mom’s side
Cross cousins
 children of opposite sex siblings
 Patrilateral cross cousins
 Cousins from dad’s side
 Matrilateral cross cousin
 Cousins from dad’s side
o Cross cousins are always of a different lineage or clan.
-Cross cousins are marriagable partners
"nature" and kinship
-cultural construction of ties of "blood"
blood is thicker than water”
o we are connected to each other by the facts of biological reproduction
• A. Cultural construction of biological ties in US and Europe
o Special connection between mother and child through the womb
 The womb imparts feelings
 The baby can feel the physiological response of the mom like excitement, cravings, etc.
 Court case..Who gets the baby?
 Lesbian couple wanted a baby. They broke up after having one. Who gets it? The woman who genetically provided the child with her eggs, or the woman who supported the child in her uterus?
 The woman who carried the child in her womb got the child
Kinship and Subjectivity
 We are born into a place where things are already established and we have no control over it
 Doesn’t mean we are robots
• We act, think, manipulate, lie
• Don’t all travel at 65 mph, don’t all stop at the sign
 We have to make ourselves as a person
 Individual perspective
 Father, son who bought cattle, son who stayed at home.. everyone has their own perspective
Nuer Marriage & "Descent"
o 1. Intro
 Cattle ranchers
 Patrilinear
 Polygyny
 When the man and woman get married, there is a bride-wealth agreement. The men pay the women in cattle.
 People circulate between each other because cattle circulate
o 2. Getting Descendants
 Cattle give them descendants
 For a man, when you die, you don’t just die but you become an immortal ancestor.
• Immortality is only possible if you have descendants
 Find a wife and pay bride-wealth through cattle to her people
• It is not an official marriage if no bride-wealth was paid. The children wouldn’t be considered his until he pays bride-wealth.
o Doesn’t matter if it’s not the man’s own sperm, but as long as he pays bride-wealth.
 A husband is a person who pays bride-wealth to a woman and her kin-group
 Bride-wealth and husband and father
• A father is a person who has paid bride-wealth, and then the woman has children.
o “ghost marriage”
 A dead man can become a husband and a father
 If a man dies, his kin group can give his cattle to a woman as bride-wealth so the man won’t live a bad death.
• A woman can also become a father/husband
o If a woman can’t have children (she’s barren), she’ll be treated as a male
o She can get her own cattle and then pay bride-wealth
 She then has a “wife” but it’s not a lesbian relationship
 She overcomes gender with cattle
 If the “wife” is having sex with her lover and she has kids, the father is the woman who gave the bride-wealth
 If they want to get divorced, they have to pay back the bride-wealth.
• Hard because the kin group might want back the exact same cows that were initially given
o Ex: tom, dick, harry, matilda the cows.
 Once a woman has filled her obligation by having children, etc, she can become surly, talk back and leave the man and have an affair
• She has leverage
• But the children she has with the lover is still the husband’s kids
Kinship & sociopolitical relations
-elders and sons
 Cattle are corporate
 The elders (your father, father’s brother) control the corporate herd
 Fathers have power over sons
• If you are a son and want to get married, you better have a good relationship with your father.
 Many Nuer men would go to the capital of the Sudan to get wage jobs through construction, etc
 With the money they buy some cows
 The son then has his own cows apart from the corporate herd
• Threat to the old men’s authority
• Old men lose control of young men
• Now they have to negotiate
o Cattle of girls
 Cattle received as a bride-wealth payment
o Cattle of money
 Cattle purchased with wages
o Cattle can pass through both states many times
Kinship & sociopolitical relations
-men and women
 Wife
 In the beginning she can’t do what she wants (not much autonomy). But after she has a couple of kids she has tremendous autonomy (leverage)
Sociopolitical organization
• The order of social relations between groups and society
o This means even regulating people within those particular groups
o Small kin based group
 May have 15-100 people in it
 Relations in the band are governed by the principles of kinship
 San of Kalahari
 There are permanent water holes in various places in the Kalahari desert that are miles apart
 There are groups of people that have hereditary ties to a water hole
 Each group at a water hole is a band
• There are personal ties between people of different bands
• However, there is no formal relationship between the entity of one band with another band
o There are only personal relationships amongst the people
o This is called band level society.
o Larger than Band
o Is organized around principle of kingship.
o They have pan-tribal organization principle
 There is something that relates people of different groups
o Large
o Kinship based structures
o Tied to centralized points of authority
 Chiefdom has a chief
 Tribes and bands don’t have chiefs
• If it had a chief it would be called a chiefdom.
o Trobrianders
 there are four clans
 matrilineal
 has many different lineages
 Each clan has lineages that is ranked differently
• There is a chief lineage
o The chief will come from this lineage
o The chief has control of the people in his clan only
o He is the oldest son of the eldest sister
 There is a clan that is higher than the other four
• There is a paramount chief from this clan
o But he can only command people from his own clan
o But has more duties and responsibilities than other chiefs
o Based on territory
 Everyone in the territory is in that state
 Everyone is bound to listen to the leaders of that state
o Not based on kinship
o Regulation
 by taxes, commerce, writing systems
o Coercive apparatus
 Police forces
 Army
 Court systems and prisons
 If you disobey, can lead to incarceration or worse
o All societies around the world are incorporated into states
o Tribes keep their cultural identities within the broader sense of the state
4th world peoples
 Peoples who have some other special form of political organization, but have been forcibly incorporated into a state
 Ex: the Nuer
 The Turks in Sudan forced them into slaves for Ottoman Empire
 Then the British invaded and the Nuer became part of the British colony
 There was a civil war, but after it ended they discovered that the Nuer were on oil so they violated the peace treaty
• Second revolt
• Some nuers were moved to Minnesota as political refugees
o Different statuses and groups of people in a society
 Ranked in terms of prestige, privilege, power
o Systemized institutionalized inequality
Strata (stratum)
 In Hindu Indian the strata are the Castes and Jatis
 In the U.S. the strata are the classes
 In South Africa the strata are the Apartheid
 Whites, colors, blacks
 Whites = Europeans, colors = asian, Indian, etc.
 Strata is a general term
 Many ways it can be categorized
 No one specific form
o Opposite of stratification
o No high and low, king and subject
 Absence of stratification
 Ex. San of Kalahari
o All societies have some form of stratification
 Even in the San, a 3 year must listen to the parents
Nuer Segmentary Lineage System

(See written notes for picture)
 They have a big kinship structure
 have different patrilineages
 they recognize that groups at some time in the past had a common ancestor
 For example
• A-B C-D E-F G-H
• Then you realized that even farther past there is a common ancestor between all groups
• A-B_C-D_E-F_G-H
• Called a segmentary lineage structure
 The segmenatry lineage structure provides the structure for political
• If B had a war with A, the whole lineage would have a war with B, till a blood wealth
o All the other relations stay out of the problem
• But if someone from C killed someone from A, A and B will have a war with C and D
o E,F,G,H stay out of it
• If E killed someone from A
o Then the whole thing goes to war against each other
 A,B,C,D vs. E,F,G,H
• There are no formal leaders
o But there is a formal political organization
o This also creates alliances
• This structure allows a military forces to be created quickly among the alliances
Masai: Age Grades & age sets
 Live in Kenya
 Age grades and Age sets
 Age grades are categories in the life cycle
• U.S. has this too
o Infant, adult, child, toddler
• For Masai, these are categories people pass through
o Boy  warrior  elder
o These are marked by formal initiation ceremonies
 Age set is a cohort
• A group of similar aged people who passed through the age groups together
o This is similar to highschool
 Freshman, senior are similar to age grade
 Age set are the people in the same grade
 Like the class of 2006
 Elders determine when the boys will become a warrior
 Only one set per grade
• So when one moves up, another comes up to fill the gap
 Age sets have special roles
• There is a military arm
o Because the age sets comprise of many groups, this creates an alliance
Status- Ascribed and achieved
o A position occupied by an individual in a social structure
 Doctor, lawyer, custodian
 Father, mother, son, friend
 Male, female
 Middle class, blue collar
o Statuses are reciprocal
 To say you are a father is assumed you have a child. To say you are an employer is assumed you have employees
ascribed status
 Inherited. Not a whole lot you have to do to become it
 King of England
 Male/female
achieved status
 Things you must do in order to make it to the status
 Doctor, lawyer
o Any behaviors, obligations, priviledges associated with a particular status
 President of U.S. = status
 Living in white house, signing laws = role
 Father = status
 Role = take care of kids, etc.
o We simultaneously have many statuses and roles
 I am a daughter, girlfriend, student, aunt
 Role conflict
 Sometimes the many statuses and roles come in conflict with each other
• You are a mother who has a big presentation for your company. But your child is really sick. How are you going to take care of both things at once?
-position within division of labor
-relation to means of production (Marx)
o A position within a division of labor in society
 A doctor & lawyer are in same class
o Karl Marx
 Class in terms of relations to the means of production
 Means of production are special workplaces like factories, that enable the production to occur
 Do you have control over the means of production or do you not?
 Two classes
• 1. Bourgeoisie/capitalists
o those who own the means of production
• 2. Prolateriat
o don’t own the means of production
o own our capacity to do work
 Are you an employer or employee?
• Question that defines your class for Marx
o Kobe Bryant is very high paid prolateriat
o The guy who owns the Lakers is the bourgeoisie
Pierre Bourdieu
Multi-dimensional approach
o We are going to use more than 1 dimension of criteria to figure out how people are situated in society
 Capital
• money that is invested in purpose of making more money
o We want more and more
o Money put in a hole is no capital
• Economic capital
o We invest
• Social capital
o Networks, who do you know?
o Friends in high places are useful
o We accumulate social capital
• Cultural capital
o Distinguish people through style and taste
o Concerns about knowledge governing consumption
 Music, clothes
• Can trade in one form of capital for another
o A relationship between persons where one person has a recognized legitimate right to tell other people what to do
 Ex: Boss, parents
o Not the same as simple coercive power
 A person who sticks a gun up to you and tell you to give you your money is not legitimate
o Authority is cheaper and more efficient than coercive power
 Coercive power requires mobilization of resources
o A kind of leader that is found in band-type societies like San of Kalahari
o It is an achieved status, not inherited
 You have demonstrated certain skills, wisdom, aptitude
 Holds his status through Personal attributes
 His son will not be next headman. You have to develop skills
o He has influence
 But cannot order/compel people to do things. Only convince/persuade people
o An achieved status
o Personal attributes
 Most important is charisma
 He must develop followers so they will support him
o Cannot order people about, can only try to persuade
o Bigman doesn’t just get voted. He has to have a personal relationship with each follower

o The Big man is very involved in a certain institution that mediates relations between different political groups
Moka in New Guinea Highlands
• Type of competitive gifting
-example of what Bigman does
• Different clans, like Clan A and Clan B can, can compete by gifting each other
o If you receive a really good gift, you feel obligated and scared. To restore the order of symmetry, you give them something back in comparable value
o If you give more than what they gave you, there is asymmetry
o They aren’t fighting.
 They are allies through this institution of moka
o Bigman doesn’t just get voted. He has to have a personal relationship with each follower
o An ascribed status (inherited)
o In chiefdoms, not tribes
o Chief holds his/her position independent of personal qualities
 Office
o Has true authority
 Could banish people
 Unlike headman in that he steps into the authority
o Chief in title passes from a man to his sister’s son
Political leaders in states
o Wide diversity of different kinds of leaders
 King/monarch is ascribed status
 President is achieved status
o They have authority
 Generally it is an Office
 The authority extends to everyone in the territory
 If you don’t obey, the police and such can back him up
Authority and mobilization of labor
o Mobilization
 Getting people together to work on some sort of project

Must build a group of followers
-puts a limit on how many followers you can have b/c/ must have personal relationships
Elaborated kinship system
-has authority over everyone in clan just by moving into the office
Authority is exercised over everyone in territory
-everyone in U.S. boundary must pay taxes or IRS will get you
-can mobilize the largest group of people
1. holism is idea that socio-cultural practices need to be understood in the context of the whole they are a part of
a. A person is dressed in a fire suit and there’s smoke. He is a fireman
b. A person is dressed in a fire suit in a bar in October. He is wearing a costume
c. Integrated
d. Holistic approach is to connect things to their broader topics
Ethnographic fieldwork
i. Very time consuming
1. We go some place for a couple of years and live in a certain community
2. Participant Observation
a. Involve yourself in the daily activities so you can conceive many connections.
b. valuable method of research
Survey research
only gives distribution
Matriliny vs. patriliny
matriliny = values women. A lineage without daughters dies
ex: Trobriands

Patriliny = China
1. The boys carry on the lineage’s last name
2. China only allowed 1 child per family
3. If the one child is a girl, then abort her
-Trobriand Islands
-Papua New Guinea
i. The island of New Guinea
1. Western half is part of Indonesia, eastern half is the country of Papua New Guinea
a. Region: Massim is within Papua New Guinea
b. Group of islands within the Massim = Trobriand Islands
c. It is tropical, sandy beaches, etc.
Wealth and political relations
2. Wealth as a cultural construction- role of wealth in creating sociopolitical relations
a. We accept something to be valuable
i. For Americans, the green pieces of paper are valuable
1. We spend a lot of money on things we think are valuable, like paintings
2. Political relations are underscored
a. People at the art auction are assigning values to things.
ii. Trobrianders view yams and banana leaves as wealth
1. they are important to them through their own sociopolitical relations
Trobriand Men's wealth
i. Yams
1. The men grow the yams
ii. Stone axe blades
1. Traded in from other places
iii. Clay pots
iv. Kula valuables
1. arm shells, shell necklaces
a. They are trophies of sorts
Trobriand Women's wealth
i. Grass skirts
1. intricately woven
ii. Banana leaf bundles
1. women make them and the skirts
c. Interdependence of men and women
i. Has very important political implications
ii. Men need women and women need men
1. Brothers need sisters, husbands need wives, etc.
Trobriand chiefs
1. Chiefdom
a. Stratification, not egalitarian
b. Within each clan, the lineages are ranked
i. There is one chiefly lineage who owns more land than the rest of the clans
ii. Chief clan also owns special magic
1. community of belief
a. a bunch of people believe it is there, so it works
iii. Eldest son of the eldest daughter of the chief lineage can become chief
1. women cannot be chief
a. Should be most generous of all
b. By being generous he gets prestige, power
i. Giving wealth away
1. This makes you powerful and influential because people are then indebted to you
2. Redistribution
a. Become a depot so wealth can come through you and you can then give it to others
Sex and gender
i. The words are not interchangeable
ii. Sex: biological differences between males and females
1. body hair, large breast, genitalia
iii. Gender: a cultural construction
1. How we invoke a male/female dichotomy and use it as symbols to discuss
2. Pink vs. blue
3. dog vs. cat
Public & domestic domains
i. Domestic Domain
1. Places, activities that are associated to the household
2. Gendered female
ii. Public domain
1. addresses relations between domestic units
a. governance, business
i. Places like village center, meeting houses, Congress, white house, business office
b. gendered male
iii. The domains are not equally valued
1. Public domain is viewed as greater
2. Evaluation of woman is that their roles are not as important
iv. The domains are considered natural
1. Natural differences between male and female
a. Women give birth, are more nurturing
b. Men are more aggressive
2. This model is universal
Trobriand matrilineage and matriclan
i. Matrilineal
1. 4 different matriclans on the main island
ii. Lineages are corporate
1. The lineage controls land
2. If you are part of the lineage you get to use the land
a. But it is not just yours, it belongs to the entire lineage
i. Can’t just go and sell it
i. Believed that men had nothing to do with conception
1. Baloma – spirit of the dead who has a waiwaia (spirit child). The spirit would put the waiwaia into a woman so she can give birth
Fathers, parenting, and child devlopment
1. Love of the father shapes a child
2. A child will not develop as a healthy and functional person without the father’s love
a. The love is necessary
3. Fathers do a great deal of child care
4. Fathers provided lots of jewelry to children
a. Being beautiful helps influence other peoples’ minds
i. Political skill
b. Child without jewelry = incomplete, no father
5. Father makes yam gardens for daughters and gives land to sons
a. The son doesn’t get to keep the land unless they stay on it because they are from different lineage
i. Virilocal residence
Trobriand views of conception
i. Believed that men had nothing to do with conception
1. Baloma – spirit of the dead who has a waiwaia (spirit child). The spirit would put the waiwaia into a woman so she can give birth
Yam gardens
-Who makes them and for whom
a. Yams
i. Male wealth
ii. Each house has a household garden
1. Yams aren’t in this garden, they are in a special garden
iii. They symbolize sociopolitical relations to Trobriands
b. Men grow yams
i. A man does not use the yams he grows
1. Yams he grows he gives away
2. The yams a man uses are from someone else
a. Wife provides yams to husband
3. Who grows yams for a woman and her husband?
a. Woman’s father
b. Members of women’s matrilineage
i. Her brother
ii. Her adult sons
c. These people are the wife’s workers
4. If a man is a senior man of his lineage, then junior men of lineage give him yams
a. His younger brothers
b. His sisters’ sons
5. The wife is powerful because she gives the husband yams, so husband will be destroyed if he doesn’t treat her well
6. Each man will have many yam gardens
a. All the yams in one garden go to one person
Trobriand Chiefs
i. Chiefs need extra yams because they need to be the most generous
ii. Polygyny
1. Only chief is allowed to have more than one wife
a. Creates more yams for him to redistribute
i. Competition between clans
1. Clan invites another clan. Lavish a clan by giving tons of yams
2. Clan looks good with the more stuff it gives
ii. Organized by chiefs
Brother-sister avoidance
d. Brothers and sisters don’t really talk to each other and don’t want to be near to each other.
i. They don't say "I love you"
i. Giving her yams is showing affection
Deaths, Funerals, and Trobriand Social reproduction
i. Death is attributed to sorcery
1. The lineage itself is under attack by an enemy when one person dies
2. The lineage must show it is still strong
a. Does this by repaying the debt of the dead
b. Pays back with women’s wealth
i. Banana leaf bundles, grass skirts
3. The elder women compete about who can give away the most
4. Life = men’s wealth, death = women’s wealth by showing strength of lineage
IV. Trobriand Mortuary Ceremonies
a. Lineage is in shock when someone dies
i. The in-laws must come in and support them and do all the work
ii. “Owners” and “workers”
1. Owner = member of a dead person’s matrilineage
2. Workers = anybody else that comes to help
a. Friends, co-workers
b. They cry, carry the person’s things
c. Make themselves appear ugly to honor the person
d. The in-laws are the most important of all the workers because they help the most
Sagali (mortuary exchanges)
i. The women owners thank the workers by giving them women’s wealth
ii. Show that the matrilineage is strong
iii. All-day affair
1. Each worker is called one at a time, and then each woman dumps the wealth to the worker
2. A woman may need thousands of banana leaf bundles
c. Sources of women’s wealth
i. A woman makes woman’s wealth
ii. Stock-piled wealth received in an earlier sagali
valova exchanges
1. She can trade for additional bundles
a. tobacco for bundles
b. Tobacco has to be purchased from a store
i. Woman’s husband provides money for tobacco