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62 Cards in this Set

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Importance of pre-Columbian complex civilizations
Ancestors of the region were living in complex societies before Europeans arrived and before European ancestors were living in complex societies
How did Cortes army conquer 25 million Indians
Guns, steel, and diseases. Cortes was able to overcome language barriers through translators. Cortes burned his ships to show his soldiers that they must conquer the Mexicans or die.
Peninsulare –
Criollos –
Mestizos –
people born in Spain
Spanish/European descendents
people mixed b/w Mexicans/Europeans
Peasant Society (def. of peasant)
most people in Mexico come from a peasant background (agricultural labor is attached to their background)
Significance of U.S./Mexican
(1846-1848) Mexico loses 1/3 of its surface area to the U.S. as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
Porfirio Diaz
ruled Mexico from 1876-1911. He was a dictator and modernizer and helped Mexico experience tremendous economic growth, investments in arts & sciences, and Los Cientificos.
Los Cientificos
powerful group of people, advisors to Porfirio Diaz. Primary receivers of economic growth. Literally translates into “The Scientist.”
Rurales
rural police force that enforced laws in rural areas. Oppressed people in the country side and corrupted elections in rural areas.
Significance of constitution of 1917
A result of the revolution of 1910. Tried to limit power of the church. Redistributed land (article 27 – made it illegal to buy land that was already owned).
Significance of election of 2000
Got rid of PRI (institutional revolutionary party) that dominated politics in Mexico for over 70 years. Vicente Fox was elected.
Important themes in Mexican Culture
Nationalism – deep, proud, strong cultural heritage Polychronic – relationships more important than time. Role of Church – 90% of population is Roman Catholic.
Compadrazgo System
strong relationship system to godparents/godchildren and family (led to corruption b/c of favoritism and loyalty towards family and close friends), also reaches out to school and work.
Modernization Theory
Industrial and economic development. Argues that industrialization is a necessary step towards progress (Pena).
Maquiladoras
Factories that assemble raw materials and ship them without duty or tariffs.
Neoliberalism & NAFTA –
(Neoliberalism is a label for economic liberalism that describes government policies aiming to promote free competition among business firms within market, notably liberalization and monetarism)
Examples of neoliberalism in Mexico
maquiladoras, braceros, roads.
Importance of Samurai & warrior class in Japan
strong hierarchical structure, loyalty, performance in the group, sacrifices to meet objectives, organizational objective the most important.
Significance of Commodore Perry & “Black Ships”
Meiji restoration (1867) ended feudalism, demise of warrior class, opened Japan to trade with the east, parliamentary system implemented=western ideas.
Amae
“dependency” important emotional ties and ties individuals to companies and organizations.
Giri
“indebtedness” related to amae – indebtedness to others, past and present.
On
“obligation” to others past and present.
Kao
“Personal honor” – pride, self-esteem, and reputation. Don’t criticize or over complement people in public (most important)
Wa
“Harmony” – public disagreements and saying “no” looked down upon (most important)
Zaibatsu
consortium of large business firms. Broken up after WWII but influence still remains. Networks established during feudal period were strong and still remain today.
Keiretsu
long term partnerships (very important concept) tightly knit groups of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, and banks who give each other business.
Kanban
Just-in-time – lean manufacturing: goal is to produce according to need and not full up warehouses with extra stuff.
Kaizen
Continuous improvement
Characteristics of Japanese culture
high context: high informed. Polychronic: meals are important to build relationships, extensive networks.
Syncretism
mixture of outside influences within internal cultural traits, taking aspects of another culture and making them your own.
Hierarchy
hierarchy is ingrained in Japanese culture, there are no clear labels.
QCCs
(Quality Control Circles) within large Japanese companies – groups of approx. 15 people from different levels and departments who meet regularly to study problems and make recommendations for improvements in products and services.
Significance of Chinese Dynasties
there was a lot of instability; whenever there was a change is dynasties, there was a lot of violence so the Chinese tend not to want change.
Confucius (five virtues)
1)Ren: benevolence 2) Yi: honesty and uprightness 3) Zhi: knowledge 4) Xin: integrity 5) Li: correct behavior, good manners, politeness (most important)
Chinese inventions
gunpowder, compass, paper, printing: transformed the rest of the world
Needham problem
It’s a question, if China created these inventions that changed the world why hasn’t China changed in the next 500 years.
ROC
Republic of China (1912) – fall of Qing Dynasty
Problems with Tse-Tung’s policies
Lead communist revolution and communist party of China to victory. Great Leap Forward – tried to transform China from agriculture peasant farmers to an industrial system, it was a huge failure. Created forced migration and tried to move farmers to the city, a lot of people died due to famine.
Xiaoping’s reforms
Mixture of private and public owned enterprises. Economic reforms (privatization). Opened up China to the West.
Guanxi
“connections” influence every aspect of life, the more Guanxi the better. Influences economicsc, politics, and business relations; social capital.
Language is arbitrary
language is a series of arbitrary symbols combined to convey messages. The meaning of symbols is learned, one language is not more efficient than another.
How culture influences language
the size and specialization of vocabulary indicates areas of importance in culture. Ex) U.S. – lots of specialization in terms of medicine and technology.
How language influences culture
language shapes our reality, the categories with which we conceptualize the words. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: “language is not merely a mechanism for communicating ideas but is the shaper of ideas.”
How language and values are interrelated
language reflects a culture’s worldview and reveals its basic value structure. Ex) individualism or group orientation in terms of vocabulary, greetings, participation, and communicational goals.
Differences in linguistics style b/w Japanese and English
the Japanese tolerate silence, polite, indirect, cooperative, little eye contact. The U.S. abhors silence, argumentative, direct, competitive, relatively high eye contact.
Significance of nonverbal communication
possibly 70% of communication, signals time and turn-taking, provides emotional clues. Nonverbal communication is learned, involuntary, cultural variability, and symbolic (arbitrary).
Examples of nonverbal communication
posture: status, expectations, respect, submissiveness. Gestures: can change the meaning of verbal communication. Facial Expressions: emotion, attitude, conveys information. Gaze: communication through maintaining or avoiding eye contact.
Anthro. Approach to marketing & consumer behavior
“Quantitative ethnography”
Design anthropology
Using anthropological perspective and methods to study user behavior and inform businesses on what customers need and want (complex relationships). Localizing products (to occupation or region), evaluating existing products or services, redesigning existing products, designing new products. Examples of these products: NYC subway paypass, PC’s for emerging markets (fishermen, outside computers), cell phones with traceable keypad for texting in other languages.
Organizational anthropology
anthropological perspective in studying organizations (organization as a culture, web of integrated systems, focus on patterns). Universal components of culture and organization culture (must be studied holistically – everything is interrelated).
Characteristics of work
work = “creating goods and services valued in society.” Work and technology influence each other.
Relationship between work and technology
technology and the operator of technology are interdependent. Technology extends human capacity to do work.
Social context of technology
technology is a social creation. Two basic concepts: 1) development context 2) Use context (if development context and use context are not in sync, then there will be problems.)
Technototemism
how technologies are used as totemic (considering an object close to you or as part of the family) symbols (signify socio-economic status)
Holism, holistic approach
looking at the ways the parts of a society or groups of societies are interrelated.
Cultural relativism
understanding different culture systems in their own terms; interpreting differences without judgment.
High-context
people involved in close personal relationships and/or are part of an extensive network of family, friends, and colleagues.
Low-context
people compartmentalize and have limited networks, which requires more detailed background information when interacting with others.
Monochromic
focus on one thing at a time. Schedules and appointments are a high priority
Polychromic
focus on many things at once, relationships are most important.
Fordism
automation and mass-production, taylorism in practice (taylorism = scientific approach to business).
Neoloberalism
spread of free market capitalism, free-trade = economic growth, privatization and deregulation, decreases in social services.
Neoloberalism
spread of free market capitalism, free-trade = economic growth, privatization and deregulation, decreases in social services.