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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Macro & Local levels of social analysis
- When you interpret and try to make sense of
A. Local Level
1. Analysis is limited to a certain region like a society or a village
B. Macro Level
2. Relations between societies
3. EX: Producing cash crops for global markets, colonialism, migration
i. practice of the domination of subordinate groups
ii. Subtle control like through middlemen
i. A type of imperialism that addresses the process of governing subordinate groups as colonies.
ii. Direct administration of conquered territories
iii. EX: British India where they sent people over to the colony to govern the natives
3 waves of european colonial expanision (and Japan)
1. “Discovery” of the New World
A. 16th century: Spain and Portugal
B. 17th century: United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch) and Great Britain and France
a. There was trading with autonomous people, enslaving people
b. Not much new things that had already been done for centuries
2. Early Industrial Capitalism
A. Great Britain in 18th century as industrial country
a. It needs:
i. Raw materials- tin and special metals for industry back home.
1. Cash crops- sugar, tobacco, cotton
a. they don’t grow well in Europe, but you can grow them in the colonies
b. Britain was making textiles out of wool, but then switched to cotton
ii. Markets
1. Open markets in other countries to trade
b. You can achieve raw materials and markets by middle men. You don’t have to get colonies
C. Late 19th and early 20th century industrial capitalism
a. Great Britain is no longer alone as industrial power
i. There is France, the U.S., Germany
b. Competition to gain colonies
c. Nations were divided up by the conquering European forces
d. Japan
i. Japan gets colonies in the Pacific
ii. In 1905 in defeats Russia in the War of the Pacific
Profit and the Colonies
A. Direct settlement of overseas territory
a. Send your own people to the territory to set up particular industries
i. Sugar plantations, tobacco, ship building, etc.
ii. You can provide markets for your products when the community builds, and have taxes
B. Develop resource extraction
a. Mining tin
b. Phosphates in islands in the Pacific
c. Running huge plantations
i. Growing cash crops like coffee, rubber, sugar, cotton, tobacco
C. Make use of local people
a. Use the locals to work for cheap labor
b. The locals were not interested in working, but to make them produce what you want:
i. Use direct coercion
1. Slave trade
a. Kidnapping to force someone into an indentured service agreement
b. Indentured service
i. Contractual agreement where The employee gets the money after their certain period of time
ii. Many people did not even receive pay at the end
iii. You trick people into coming on your ship to trade, but then capture them and force them to sign agreement
a. An order by some government body for people to work (usually without money) on some specific task
b. Has a specific duration, and then ends
c. EX: If you don’t obey the order, you will be fined, flogged, etc.
Colonial Strategies of Accessing Labor
1. Allow the people to grow their own coffee, but buy it from them at a fixed low rate
2. If the people aren’t interested in growing their own stuff…
a. Taxes
i. head taxes that must be paid in the currency of the colonial power
1. The people won’t have their own currency, so they have to go work to get the currency
b. Dispossession of land
i. You take land from the local peoples, which denies them the means of their own subsistence
ii. They now live in a smaller, poorer area of land
iii. To make ends meet, they are going to have to work in the plantations, mines, etc.
iv. Over 70% of the arable land in Kenya was taken by Britain.
1. Britain did nothing with it, but took it to secure labor
Disease, Depopulation, and Imperialism
-Look at it from the perspective of the conquered people
A. Depopulation
a. Disease
i. They have never come in contact with the new diseases like smallpox, measles and therefore did not have immunities to them.
1. Native Americans in New World
2. Pacific Islanders
3. Australia
4. North American native population
a. In 15h century there were 7 million natives
b. Population low point was 390,000 people
c. 94 of every 100 people were gone
Herero Revolt
ii. Herero in German south west Africa
1. Germans came in and turned Herero into colony
2. Took the good grazing land and made the Herero move to outskirts where there was bad grazing land
3. Herero revolted in 1904
4. Germans killed everyone
5. Population of 100,000 people became 20,000
1. Homicide = murder of individuals
2. Genocide = murder of a group of people
4. The governments spend millions to commit genocide on Indians
a. Indian bounty hunters
i. Hunt the Indians and kill them.
ii. They take the scalps
iii. Every Indian scalp returned to California = more money
iv. U.S. reimburses California
5. Power of culture
a. If we were in that time period, would we too have bought the bounty hunter a drink?
The "Frontier"
a. A novel new space to expand into
b. Cultural organization of space
i. Productive order
1. going to the opera, neat fences, cut grass
ii. Frontier = zone of nature, chaos, wild things
1. Idea to tame the frontier is to transform nature  culture
2. Tame the frontier
a. cutting down trees, killing coyotes/gophers, build roads and bridges, get rid of Indians
i. Relocate to marginal lands (not good quality)
ii. They were unable to continue because not enough area, fertile soil
Indian Removal Act of 1830
1. Signed by Andrew Jackson
2. Forced Indians to relocate to reservations in Oklahoma
3. The whites wanted the Indian lands
4. Nobody wanted the land in Oklahoma
5. Brazil, Canada, Africa also have reserves for their natives
Land Tenure
Privatization of land v. corporate land
1. Land is commodity, something you can sell
2. A person owns land
3. Western notions of ownership were used to take land
a. Some natives have corporate ownerships of land
b. Not the same of Westerners ideas
a. Opposite of inalienable
b. You can cut off ties and have no lasting association
c. EX: your car
i. Sell your car when you don’t want it
ii. No relationship with the person you sold it too
iii. No longer yours anymore
d. Can become commodified
i. Sell it
e. Can be privatized
i. Individually owned
a. A lasting association with an event/person
b. EX: a piece of jewelry from your grandmother
i. You got it from your mom, and you will give it to your daughter
ii. All are connected through this jewelry
iii. It mediates relationships
c. Hard to commodofied. Only can be transferred
d. Not individualized
The Mahele
e. Land of Hawaii was inalienable and corporate
i. Plantation owners pushed Hawaiian monarchs to privatize Hawaii so they could be “modern”
ii. Privatize is that each individual owns a certain part of the land and can do what they want to their piece
1. They could sell their land, etc
iii. The monarchs finally did so by the Mahele act (1848)
iv. This caused them to lose their nation to Americans
commodification: Alienable and inalienable
see flashcards for alienable and inalienable.

Inalienable = hard to be commodified. Only can be transferred
Alienable = can be commodified
Rubber Production in the Belgian Congo
Abusive form of labor control
i. Invention of automobile caused big demand for cars for tires
ii. Rubber trees only grew in Tropics like the Congo
iii. King Leopold of Belgium used whatever means necessary to produce much rubber as possible
1. Local Africans were forced to work
2. If you didn’t work fast enough you got whipped or your body parts got chopped off
Phosphate mining on Nauru
i. Island in Pacific Ocean near Equator
ii. Had very large phosphate deposits
iii. Germans started strip mining to produce the phosphates
1. Nauru could no longer grow food because all the top soil went away
- another abusive labor form
Anthropological theory and colonialism
a. Difficult to associate colonialism from just anthropology
b. How do people do such horrible things to other people?
i. It has to do with how a person is represented to you
ii. The way a person is represented decides what you want to do to them
Anthropological theory and colonialism
-Scientific racism
a. 3 different races
i. each race has its own appearance, behavior
ii. Believed Africans weren’t really people
1. it’s okay to do things to them like you would an animal
Anthropological theory and colonialism
-unilinear social evolution
a. Lewis Henry Morgan
b. Unilinear social evolution
i. All human societies go through this one process of change from a state of simplicity to complexity
ii. Some societies get stuck because of material conditions and then don’t change anymore
c. White Man’s Burden
i. White man’s paternalistic duty to help the other peoples of the world
ii. We need to go into their land and make them more like ourselves
iii. In doing so you enslave them, gain lots of profit, take their land
Anthropological theory and colonialism
-Structural Funcionalism
a. Dominated all theoretical work
b. Treats the social and cultural order as a complex system of interdependent parts that in a state of equilibrium.
c. Different institutions function to maintain order of relations between groups in society
i. Preserved and maintained day after day, year after year
d. Metaphor as a “body social”
i. A body is a whole entity with many different systems which contain different organs
1. The organs of circulatory system together have a function to pump heart, get oxygen, etc. in order to maintain the body
ii. Different social systems help the health and maintenance of society
e. No conflict
i. Stresses cooperation and integration
ii. But certainly with colonialism there was conflict when forcing people to move, killing them, etc.
1. Where was this talked about in the structural functionalism?
f. No change
i. Society is maintained in a steady state over time
ii. But colonialism starts change and a new system
1. When did anthropologists talk about this??
2. “ethnographic present”
a. You’ve taken the whole colonial encounter and swept it under the rug
b. You write about how the people live now, even though it isn’t really how they live
c. The anthropologists talk to the old people
i. Must have training and have a method to obtain life histories
d. You take a picture of the one thatch house left in the village
Capitalist world system
a. Single global system of economic and political situations in which capitalist relations of production and exchange dominate or are mixed with other local forms of production and exchange
b. Relations between societies
i. Forces us to talk about issues of history and power and the changes that are happening in the systems
ii. A macro level
c. 3 tiers of positions within capitalist world system
d. Dymanic model
i. You can change your position in the world by your relations with other nations and your economy
ii. Nations can move up and down
Capitalist world system
a. Industrialized nations
b. Invested in technology
c. They are wealthier and their populations provide a higher standard of living
d. More powerful and influential
i. Good military power
e. In the past, the Economies relied on imported raw materials (metal) and export manufacture goods
i. Now in the present the core exports technological and financial services
f. Examples: U.S., Japan, Germany, Great Britain, France, Canada
Capitalist world system
a. Nations that are industrialized but lack the wealth and power of the core
b. Not as much military power
c. Intermediate position between core and periphery
d. Example: Brazil, Mexico, South Korea
Capitalist world system
a. The less industrialized countries
b. The “3rd world”
c. Less wealthy
d. Lower standard of living
e. Only a few very wealthy people
f. Production is labor intensive
g. In the past
i. The economies exported raw materials or cash crops, and imported cars, clothes, radios, etc.
ii. Economy was dominated on one single export or cash crop
iii. If the prices were high for that commodity that’s great
iv. But if there is a lot of competition then it’s bad
v. Examples: Nations of West Africa, some South American nations
A. Economic system
B. Can’t operate without money
1. But other systems that aren’t capitalist have money
a. Ex: Feudalists in Europe, Rome, Greece
capitalism vs. trobrians
-value orientation regarding wealth and status
-Logic of reinvestment for never ending capital accumulation
1. Commodity -->Commodity
(apples for wheat)
2. Commodity--> Money-->Commodity
(apples for money for wheat) –money is middleman
3. Money -> commodity--> money
(buy something to resell it for more money)
-Money should be invested in the economy, not into the ground
-GDP needs to constantly grow. If it doesn’t, we are in a recession
-Banks, stock markets, commodity markets help us invest
- We all must learn these methods

-Don’t reinvest your wealth to accumulate it, but redistribute wealth
-giving away gives you prestige
ex: sagalis, kayasas
capitalism vs. trobriands
-Organization of labor & production
(How do we put people into the different tasks that need to be done)
-Labor is bought and sold as a commodity
-Class system
-sell our capacity to do work (labor power)
-In return we get a wage/salary

-your position in it organizes your labor
-ex: wives, husbands, sisters all do different tasks for different people
-hierarchal relations of kinship
-When a chief needs more yams, he turns to hiskinship
capitalism vs. trobriands
-Control of means of production (most critical resources we need to produce things)
-privately owned
-you can do what you want with it like sell it, etc
ex: factories, stocks

-land is corporate
-unit holding the land is a matrilineage
Routinization of Production & Taylorism
a. You don’t need to think anymore because it’s a routine
b. Happens because of:
i. improvements in automation
ii. Management techniques (Taylorism)
1. You could setup the labor as an assembly line
2. You don’t need skilled labor
a. Microchip assembly can be done by peasant women
a. Geography
i. Near equator and part of Asia
b. Former British Colony
i. Now its an independent nation
c. They want to industrialize
1. Program for Malaysia to be fully industrialized by the year 2020
2. Encourage foreign investment
a. Cut taxes
b. Cut regulations
c. Electronics industries that make microchips have gone to Malaysia
3. Tensions occur as rural Malay women who are hired by microchip factories
a. Ang argues that Malaysians don’t speak directly about what they don’t like.
b. They speak indirectly by talking about what’s happening to Malaysian women
Capitalism on the Periphery
1. Heavily centralized production now done in periphery and semi-periphery, not in the core.
a. Why pay an American worker $15 to do something when I can have someone in Indian do it for 50 cents
b. There is still costs to close a factory in the US and open it in a new country and then ship the parts to the other factory, but more profit to do it
Multi-National Corporations (MNCs)
a. Corporation whose activities and operations are not contained in a single nation.
b. The operations are all around the world and across national borders
c. Been around along time like through colonialism
d. Nations in semi-periphery are competing with each other to attract the factories to come to their country
i. Do this by cutting regulations, taxes
Free Trade Zones (FTZ)
a. A nation will take a particular part of the country and say if you develop a factory in this zone, we will cut the regulations and taxes and laws that are established for the rest of the nation
i. Make it cheap for the factory so they don’t have to spend money on labor laws, environment laws, etc.
II. Creating Capitalist workers in Malaysian free trade zones
1. Free trade zones
a. Hiring peasants from neighboring villages
i. Only single young women.
ii. Not men or old men
iii. They have no experience with the factory work, so big economic and cultural shift
iv. Turn the women into efficient industrial workers
1. Make them think of time, etc. differently
a. Process of becoming a capitalist worker
b. Exercise forms of discipline to transform them
Capitalist Discipline
i. Effect of the exercise of power on these subjugated women, and their compliance with the goals of Capitalist production
ii. Control their bodies
1. Bodies should be in seat. Not talking, but being focused
Docile Bodies
1. The women don’t go on strike, complain.
2. They go along with all the various objectives of Capitalist production
iv. Unforseeing consequences
1. Hantu
a. Demons in the forest
b. Malaysians believe they can possess a woman’s spirit
c. When a woman is supposedly possessed, she gets angry and throws things, etc.
d. The other workers all get scared and leave the factory
e. The workers will not come back until the factory hires a shaman to make the demon go away
f. Every few months a factory closes because of the Hantu
a general term for "village"
1. Older cultural order/system
2. Has an underlying matrilineal emphasis
1. Largely all Muslims
2. As a religion, Islam has stretched across the world
Rural Malay Gender Constructions
i. Men
1. Are of stronger moral and spiritual character
2. Guided by reason
3. able to resist temptations
4. Spirits like Hantu cannot possess men
ii. Women
1. Weaker moral and spiritual character
2. More influenced by feelings
3. They are too governed by passion to always do the right thing
Gender & authority in village homes
i. Men
1. Should have authority over women and children because they are able to resist temptation and are able to do the right thing
ii. Women
1. Are a threat to men
a. They can use their bodies to tempt men
b. Can destroy a man’s spiritual purity
2. Women must be controlled
a. Keep themselves heavily clothes
b. Don’t talk to men who aren’t their relatives
c. Should avoid dangerous places where the Hantu are lurking
Stages of Woman's life
i. As women get older, they get spiritual stronger
ii. As youth-virgins, they are under the authority of their father
1. Weakest stage
2. Don’t let them go out of the village
3. They don’t need much supervision inside the village because it is supposed to be very safe
4. The older women usually supervise them
iii. Sexually mature women
1. Married woman
a. Should be under authority of husband
b. Self-regulate
i. She is an agent of her own discipline
ii. Must keep herself dressed, etc.
2. Widowed or divorced woman
a. Called a “Janda”
b. She is not sexually mature, but she is not under authority of any man
c. She is the most dangerous of all women
3. Elderly woman
a. No longer tempts the man because they do not desire her
b. She is as spiritually strong as a man
i. Hantu won’t possess her
ii. She can go wherever she wants and talk to whoever she wants
iii. She has a lot of authority and respect in her village
Time in the Kampung vs. the Factory
Life in village
o Time spent vs. time past
o There is no rigid schedule
 Flows depending on what people do.
 Don’t need a watch or clock
o 1. Plenty of room for socializing
 There is no difference between work and socializing.
 Example
 Two sisters washing the dishes are gossiping as well
 You should always have the time to socialize
 If someone does not have the time to socialize can become morally suspect
 Did you cheat or doing something back?
• B. Factory
o There is a clock that regulates the day in every respect
o Time is spend and wasted
 “Time is money”
 Lose money for being late to work.
o Rigid schedules.
 Every minute is accounted
 8 hours
 2 15 minute breaks
 And a thirty minute lunch
o Changing work shifts
o Disruption of participation on social relations
 A woman that is working so much won’t get to communicate with others.
 Also, they have to do chores at home too, so they don’t have time to hang out socially
Fractured Day
 Before factory, work and talking was not separated
 In the factory, there is a clear division between time for working and time when you can socialize
Differences between sons and daughters
-Education, work
o 1. Sons: parents want them to have higher education and then even go on to college
 The goal was so that the son would get to the government job
 The government job was highly covenant.
 Parents will endure long periods of unemployment for the oldest adult son
o 2. Daughters: expected to stay at home until they go t married. They were expected to help out around the house.
 With the presence of a factory, the parents encourage the daughter to delay marriage for a few years to work in the factory
 Idea is to have extra cash supplement family income.
Boys and girls in village schools
o 1. Elementary school.
 The girls perform better than the boys
 The girls have higher grades and are more obedient
o 2. Secondary school
 The boys are outperforming the girls scholastically
 When girls are in secondary school, they are also given a fairly large amount of household chores
 The guys are spared the work of household chores so that they have time to study
Changes in Authority in the village
o Young women are working for wages.
 They get a number of leverage for their wages
 i. The brother doesn’t have money because the hiring cycle for government jobs are in cycle
• He borrows money from the sister.
 ii. The woman allocate the money because of the matrilineage society
Micro-chip Factories in the FTZ
:Attracting a young female workforce
o Microchip plants are hiring almost exclusively young, unmarried woman
o The bottom line of the company is improved by hiring single young woman
o Advantages
 1. Wages and benefits are reduced
 Cut labor costs
 There is a cultural expectation of what a woman should do with their life.
• This work period is a temporary period
• The word is so simple that you can have woman work with a minimal amount of training that can be temporary
 There are no accumulation of raise
 No need to worry about benefits, retirement packages
 2. Corporations are spared costs and inefficiencies accompany deteriorating eyesight of the workers
 The woman look through a microscope to do their work
• It leads to strain on the eyes and migraine
• By the time they leave the industry, they have deteriorating eyesight
• Work is only temporary
Micro-chip Factories in the FTZ
:Reproduction of patriarchy in the factory
Corporations tap local structures of patriarchal authority to ensure worker compliance
 The main goal is to have a docile workforce
 Woman are led to believe that they are born weak
• Males are suppose to have authority over woman
• Woman workers and male supervisors
• B. Reproduction of patriarch in the factory
o 1. In the factory there is a use of kin terms
 This is done to help people in the village to continue sending their daughters
Micro-chip Factories in the FTZ
:Unlimited production demands
Supervisors control workers
 They are pushing the woman to make more chips
 Unlimited labor demands
• You could be faster
• You could be more efficient
Capitalist discipline: Power
o Measure people in terms of how much they personally possess
o Known for what it does
o Depends on the given technology to see what that power can do for you.
o With any power, you can look at how a power works
o The author is looking at how the power works here at the factories
o Has the ability to modify behavior
o The means are tools, such as the supervisor
Capitalist Discipline: Surveillance
o They have constant supervision by supervisors
o Two way mirrors
 There is the illusion that someone can be behind the mirror
-freedom and right to do activities
-women have abused it from working at the factory and becoming sinful
Public perceptions of female factory workers
-perceived negatively
-they are walking about town unsupervised
-they are talking to men they don't kow
i. A state of affairs where power relations in a social order are accepted
1. Viewed as natural and legitimate
ii. Social reproduction
1. Different social arrangements and power relations must be reproduced in order to continue throughout time and the future
i. A communicated message about truth or states of affairs in the world
ii. Different ways to be communicated
iii. Gives a particular view of the world
iv. Hegemonic Discourse
1. Communicated message that supports a certain power relation in order to make it seem necessary and natural
a. EX: Europe in the Middle Ages.
b. The vast majority of people were serfs
c. What was to stop the serfs from rebelling since there were 97 of them to every 5 lords?
i. Because the hegemonic discourse made it difficult for them to imagine something like that
1. “Divine right of kings”
a. Socio-political on earth mirrors the divine order in heaven
b. King is appointed by God to rule over the people
c. If you disobey the king, you are also disobeying God’s orders and you are being sinful.
v. Counter Hegemonic Discourse
1. Challenges the socio-political order.
2. Revolutionary discourse
a. Enlightenment
i. King no longer rules and has divine right. People have right to govern themselves
b. Storming of the bastille
c. You are risking a lot to promote this other view of the world
i. You can go to prison, be tortured and killed
Public transcript
1. is a seeming acceptance of the power relations like bowing to the lord and being respectful.
Hidden transcript
1. What is said outside of the master’s presence
2. EX: slaves don’t openly revolt, but they sing songs about the book of Exodus and Moses freeing the Israelites.
spirit possesion as resistance
1. Hidden transcript that women are sending out a distress signal through possession
2. A culturally “appropriate” way for powerless women to express resistance
a. They are using the hegemonic discourse itself to express resistance
b. Women are thought of as naturally weak and vulnerable to spirits. So of course they will get possessed in a sinful factory when they are by themselves in the restroom
i. We are inscribing power relations into the body
ii. An attempt to affect social reproduction
cult of invalidism
1. Medical discourses of gender
a. Women should not be doing a lot of hard work. Too much education will sap their energies.
2. The cult reinforces power relations between men and women
3. EX: Girls plays with Barbie dolls. Boys play with army guys and pirates and fight
a. Children are being gendered before they are born
i. When you find out it’s a boy, you paint the room blue and fill it with space ships, etc.
1. Look at biological aspects to see the gendered aspects
a. For PMS, Indians rejoice and think the woman is wise
b. But the women are biologically no different than us when we PMS
widowed or divorced Malaysian woman. She has no males to keep her in check. She is very dangerous and can seduce males
Menstruation in Cross Cultural Perspective
-Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast:
-Women must not enter the forest and do the usual work of their days like chopping wood, farming.
-They are free to indulge in things they usually have no time for, like cooking special dishes.
-This social convention requires a cyclic change in women's usual activities

-Menstruation is when a woman is at the height of her powers
-she should isolate herself and should not waste time on mudane tasks and social distractions
-she should meditate
Science's Use of metaphors for egg & sperm
Sperm is always perceived as doing a lot of work like a key. egg is portrayed as doing nothing and just sitting there like a lock.
The branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in and the cultural dimension of economic development.
examples included:
1. green revolution
2. intervention philosophies that try to help "developing" countries so that they have an industrial revolution like England did.
intervention philosophies
def: an ideological justification for ousiders to guide native peoples in specific directions. Like economic development.
1. the dominant intervention philosophy is neoliberalism. It is the main idea of adam smith hands off approach. Used to develop against the work of Communism(this capital letter one refers to the movement, not the general system which is symbolized by a lower case c)
green revolution and the greening of java
def of green revolution: new, high yieldin varities of wheat, maize, and rice along with chemical fertilizers pesticdes and new cultivatuion techinique
1. it was expected to increase the world food supply. it also caused the price of food to decline by 20%
I. in the greening of Java had several problems.
1. the pesticide had never been tested and ended up killin all te fish in the rivers. this is a problem because the people also had a deficient nutrient problem.
2. Loans were given out to people participating and this deprived local patrons of cheap labor. these patrons were put in charge of spreading information about the project but instead decided to withold it. In the end, the wealthy patrons ended up benefiting most because they took on the project. the fear that it would fail and starvation would ensue held back many poorer families with less land.
cultural imperialism
I. refers to the spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other societies which it modifies replaces or destroys.
For example, tahitians lamagasy vienmaese and senegalese learned frnech by reciting rom books about "our ancestors the guals" (french novel)
can be done through modern mass media
def: the offspring of an area who have spread to many lands.
this relates to how people are still in contact with their native land, like mexcian still watch mexican tv and send money back home.
postmodernism in Anthropology
describes a world in which traditional standards contrasts group boundaries and identities are opening up reaching out and breaking down.