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42 Cards in this Set

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Animism
Belief in souls or doubles
Black English Vernacular (BEV)
A rule-governed dialect of American English with roots in southern English. BEV is spoken by African American youth and by many adults in their casual, intimate speech- sometimes called "ebonics."
Cargo Cults
Postcolonial, acculturative religious movements, common in Melanesia, that attempt to explain European domination and wealth to achieve similar success magically by mimicking Europen behavior.
Communitas
Intense community spirit, a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness; characterstic of people experiencing liminality together.
Core
Dominant structural position in the world system; consists of the strongest and most powerful states with advanced systems of production.
Periphery
Weakest structural position in the world system.
Semiperiphery
Structural position in the world system intermediate between core and periphery.
art
an object or event that evokes an aesthetic reaction- a sense of beauty, appreciation, harmony, and/or pleasure; the quality, production, expression, or realm of what is beautiful or of more than ordinar significance; the class of objects subject to aesthetic criteria.
Diglossia
The existance of "high" (formal) and "low" (informal, familial) dialects of a single language, such as German.
Domestic-public dichotomy
Contrast between women's role in the home and men's role in public life, with a corresponding social devaluation of women's work and worth.
Focal vocabulary
A set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity), such as types of snow in Eskimos or skiers.
Folk
Of the people; originally coined for European peasants; refers to the art, music, and lore of ordinary people, as contrasted with the "high" art or "classic" art of the European elites.
Fundamentalism
Descripes antimodernist movements in various religions. Fundamentalists assert an identity separate from the larger religious group from which they arose; they advocate strict fidelity to the "true" religious principles on which the larger religion was founded.
Gender roles
The tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each sex.
Honorific
A term, such as "Mr." or "Lord" used with people, often by being added to their names, to "honor" them.
Intervention philosophy
Guiding principle of colonialism, conquest, missionization, or development; an ideological justification for outsiders to guide native peoples in specific directions.
Lexicon
Vocabulary; a deictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meanings.
Magic
Use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims.
Mana
Sacred impersonal force in Melanesian and Polynesian religions.
Morphology
The study of form; used in linguistics( the study of morphemes and word construction) and for form in general - for example, biomorpholgy relates to physical form.
Phenology
The study of sounds used in speech.
Rites of Passage
Culturally defined activities associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another.
Sapir- Whorf hypothesis
Theory that different languages produce different ways of thinking.
Syncretisms
Cultural mixes, including religious blends, that emerge from acculturation- the exchange of cultural features when cultures come into continuous firsthand contact.
British colonialism
1. The search for resources and new markets to increase profits fueled British colonialism.

2. The first phase of British colonialism was concentrated in the New World, west Africa, and India and came to a close with the American Revolution.

3. During the second period of colonialism, Britain eventually controlled most of India, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and large portions of eastern and southern Africa.

4. British colonial efforts were justified by what Kipling called "white man’s burden," which asserted that native peoples were not capable of governing themselves and needed the white British colonialist to provide and maintain order.
Characteristics of Medical systems
1.) Integral parts of culture
2.) Illness is culturally defined
3.)Both preventitive and curative sides
4.) Multiple functions
Colonialism and Identity
1. Ethnic and political distinctions around the world were severely disrupted by colonialism.

2. For example, many of the modern political boundaries in west Africa are based on linguistic, political, and economic contrasts that are the result of European colonial policies in the region.
White man's burden
Native people are not capable of governing themselves.
Euphemism
Substitution of an inoffensive word for a more pleasant one. (i.e. someone passed away)
Grammar
A. Chomsky argues that the universal grammar is finite, and the fact that any language is translatable to any other language is taken to be evidence supporting this claim.
Hypercorrection
correcting a mistake that isn't there.
Language and Gender
1.) Men and women have different styles of speaking
2.) Computer voices are usually male, because more believable.
Morphology
Morphology studies the forms in which sounds are grouped in speech.
Noam Chomsky
Proposed that there is universal grammer, or a basic set of principles and rules that underlie all language.
Sign Language
1. A few nonhuman primates have been able to learn to use American Sign Language (ASL).

a. Washoe, a chimpanzee, eventually acquired a vocabulary of over 100 ASL signs.

b. Lucy, another chimpanzee, lived in a foster family until she was introduced to the "wild," where she was killed by poachers.

c. Koko, a gorilla, regularly uses 400 ASL signs and has used 700 at least once.

2. These nonhuman primates have displayed some "human-like" capacities with ASL.

a. Joking and lying.

b. Cultural transmission: they have tried to teach ASL to other animals.

c. Productivity: they have combined two or more signs to create a new expressions.

d. Displacement: the ability to talk about things that are not present.
Inis Beag
Saw sex as negative, barely participated in intercourse
Mangaia
Sex positive, frequent sexual relations.
Revitilization Movements
1. Religious movements that act as mediums for social change are called revitalization movements.

2. The colonial-era Iroquois reformation led by Handsome Lake is an example of a revitalization movement.
Rastafarianism
1.) Rejected capitalism
2.)Revert back to African lifestyle
3.)
Emergence of the World System
Colonialism and imperialism created the worlds system when people started producting for profit instead of sustinance
Industrialization of Malaysia
Women became "possessed by spirits" due to poor working conditions.
Development of medical anthro
1.) Biological Anthro
2.) Early ethnographers
3.) Culture and personality
4.) International public health movement