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153 Cards in this Set

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Is it possible to have too much minerals?
Yes, and combinations can interact negatively
What are goitrogens, and what do they cause?
- foods which suppress thyroid fnction
- cause goiters
What is HyPP, what is it caused by, and what is the result of it?
- hyperkalemic periodic paralysis
- genetic condition found in horses and humans
- too much K+ in blood, can be fatal
What is milk fever, who gets it an when?
- dairy cattel can get this after beginning lactaction, especially if insufficient Ca+
What is osteopenia, and how does it differ from osteoperosis?
- caused or escalated by low levels of Ca, phosphorus, or vitamin D
- happens in earlier stages of bone density loss
What is osteoperosis?
- 2.5x lower than normal bone density loss
- usually in older animals, caused by imbalance between bone formation and bone reabsorption
What is perakeratosis?
- imperfect formation of horn cells of epidermis
What is rickets?
- disease affecting bone growth and mineralization in young animals that may be caused by lack of Ca, phosphorus, or vitamin D or by incorrect ratio of 2 minerals
What is the normal ratio of Calcium to phosphorus in mammals?
between 2:1 and 8:1
What are examples of ruminants?
goats, sheep, llamas, giraffes, bison, buffalo, deer, wildebeast, antelope
- all part of Ruminantia suorder except camels and llamas, which are in the tylopoda
What is spectrophotometry used for?
- measuring individual minerals by looking at how they affect spectrum of light
What is grass tetany?
condition of mineral imbalance in body resulting in severe muscle spasms (death possible)
What are macro minerals? Give examples too.
- required at higher levels than trace minerals (100ppm or more)
- Ca, P, Mg, S, Na, Cl, K
How do you calculate total mineral content in food?
burn feed at 600 degrees C to burn off all OM and leave ash (minerals)
What are the functions of Ca?
- growth (bone and teeth formation)
- milk production
- eggshell production
- muscle contraction
What must be present for Ca to be absorbed by diet?
vitamin D
What do Ca deficiencies in younger animals cause?
- rickets ("bow-legged")
- osteopenia
- osteomalacia
- osteoperosis
What do Ca deficiencies in older animals cause?
- weak bones (animal's body will steal Ca from bones to use for muscles or milk, like pregnant women in 3rd world country losing teeth)
- these called "downer cows" when pregnant because can't be sent to market and can't provide milk for farmer, in pain
during "dry period" of dairy cattle, do they need a lot or very little Ca?
very little
What does "dry period" of dairy cattle have to do with milk fever?
needs a lot of Ca once start producing milk, and this rapid change may not allow body to absorb Ca even if it's there- won't have enough for cells to function
- must monitor Ca and anion/cation levels prepartum though to make sure not high
What is P found in body?
- in bone and teeth
- some areas deficient in P (not NC)
What are Ca and P regulated by?
hormones
What was the NSCU Loggerhead turtle case study and what was the problem that appeared?
- tried to see if raise sea turtle hatchlings could determine gender laproscopically
- fed chopped shiromp tail and lived indoors and had soft squishy shells (too much P compared to Ca)
- solution: outdoor swims (vitamin D) and more Ca in diet (live crabs)
What other problems can too much P cause (besides soft shell)?
- urinary calculi, especially male ruminants because have sigmoid flexure in penis, death when bladder ruptures
- seen in giraffes too
Where is Mg found in body?
- bones, teeth, muscle action
What does Mg deficiency cause?
- muscle tetany and death
- for ruminants grazing lush grass, Mg absorption hindered by excess K+ (but can instead put Mg in mineral mix)
What is tetany?
- due to low Ca or high P
- hyperreflexia, carpopedial spasms, camps, involuntary contraction of muscles, increased AP frequency
In what form do we require S?
- 2 S-containing aa's (cystine, methionine, can make cystine from methionine)
- rumen microbes can make these when S present
Where is S found in body?
- wool
- hair
- feathers
What are the 3 main electrolytes of the body?
- Na
- Cl
- K
What are electrolytes part of?
- Na/K pump for transport and energy
- NaCl main ingredient fed to livestock in mineral mixtures
- Cl part of HCl in stomach
What does an Na deficiency cause?
- reduced growth
- decreased feed utilization
- weight loss in adults
- decreased milk production
- crave Na
What are usually the causes of a K+ deficiency and what are the results?
- abnormal EKG results
- muscle weakness
- decreased growth
- kidney lesions
- causes: deficiency in Mg or diarrhea, bulimia and anorexia, heart conditions
What does a chlorine deficiency cause?
reduced growth
What are some electrolyte complications?
- Na toxicity not common in animals but in humans linked to hypertension, heart problems, and weight gain
- body regulates electroyle balance well and excesses not common unless metabolic disorder or problem with water quality/availability
What does a K+ excess in the blood cause?
HyPP
What are the required trace minerals?
B, Co, Cr, Cu, F, I, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Si, Zn
What are trace minerals that are required by some species, but not all?
Al, As, Cd, Ni, V, Sn, Br, Pb, Li
Why is copper (Cu) important?
- healthy hair coat
- growth
- general health
- cofactor in hemoglobin formation
Symptoms of Cu deficiency?
- faded hair coat (reddish color) in cattle or horses-
- steely wool in sheep
- anemia in any species
What are the factors complicating Cu absorption?
- having excess molybdenum (trace mineral) and S in soil (and thus forage) can tie up Cu and not allow it to absorb
- Cu requirement 5x higher for grazing animals on high-molybdenum soils
- high iron water (incl. pond water) interferes with Cu absorption
- sheep require Cu, but also toxic at lower levels than most species
What is Se (selenium) important for?
- normal reproduction
- antioxidant
What is an antioxidant?
- any substance that reduces oxidative damage such as free radicals (highly reactive chemicals that attack molecules by capturing electrons)
- ex: Vitamins E, C, and betacarotene (and Se)
Why is Se regulated by the FDA and what are the policies on it?
- toxic at just 10x requirement
- require feed mills using Se to premix and track all Se coming in and going out
What happens when an animal gets acute toxic amounts of Se?
- animals grazing on high-Se soils can get "blind staggers"; means animal walking with abnormal, unsteady gait as if blind or staggering and may fall down
What happens when a grazing animal gets long exposure to mildly high Se?
- alkali disease- emaciation, loss of hair, deformation and sheeding of hooves, loss of vitality and erosion of joints of long bones
- general poor performance
- general hoof deformities
What is the Se content in NC?
medium
What is Zn important for?
- integrity of skin
- hooves
- feathers
- normal protein metabolism and growth
- component of DNA
What happens if an animal's diet is deficient in Zn?
- perakeratosis (imperfect formation of horn cells of epidermis)
- excess Ca in diet results in reduced absorption and utilization of Zn
What happens if an animal's diet has too much Zn?
- interferes with Cu metabolism which could effect Fe
Why is Fe (iron) important?
- part of hemoglobin
- Cu required for proper Fe metabolism
What happens with a deficiency of Fe?
- anemia (white gums, dental disease)
What's up with milk/young animals and Fe?
- milk low in iron
- baby pigs born with low iron
- advisable to give Fe at birth
Does NC have enough Fe?
yep, that's why it's red
What is the purpose of I?
- release thyroid hormones, which control rate of metabolism in body
What happens with a deficiency of I?
- hairless pigs and lambs at birth, not common
- in humans, babies born with low iodine have 15 point lower IQs
- goiters appear (due to goitrogens in feed which tie up I)
- adding iodized salt fixed the problem
What does F do?
prevents dental disease
What is Cr (chromium) linked to?
increasing lean and decreasing fat in pigs (also in human weight loss pills)
What does Mn deficiency cause?
- rare because high content in feedstuffs
- if does occur, skeletal problems most common
- found in people who work in Mg mines (causes dementia, schizophrenia)
How many vitamins are there?
16
What kind of chemical are all vitamins?
organic
What is a vitamin?
any fat or water-soluble organic substances essential in minute amounts for normal growth and activity of body and obtained naturally from plant and animal foods
What are the fat-soluble nutrients?
A,D,E,K
Where are fat-soluble nutrients stored?
liver, for months to years
absorbed intact
What is the other name for vitamin A?
retinol
Where is vitamin A found?
in animal tissue, but plants contain caroetene which is vitamin A precursor
What are the benefits of vitamin A?
- aid night vision (strengthen light receptor pigments in eye)
- strengthen epithelial tissue maintenance (skin and other epithelial tissue)
- enable bone growth
symptoms of vitamin A deficiency?
- reproductive problems (so added to feed or injected into breeding animals)
- stunted growth
- night blindness
What are some good sources of carotene?
pasture, hay, grasses, corn
What are some good sources of vitamin A?
- animal liver (but polar bear liver has toxic amounts)
What is vitamin D involved in?
Ca absorption and utilization (really a hormone)
What are the 2 forms of vitamin D and where are they found?
D2- in plants
D3- in animal tissues; birds (and exotics) must eat this because can't convert D2 to D3 but mammals can
How do animals make vitamin D? Which animals can't?
- when skin exposed to UV light, cells make vitamin D from cholesterol
- cats and dogs can't!
What are the symptoms of vitamin D deficiency?
- rickets in young animals (bowlegged due to soft bones because can't absorb Ca from diet)
- weak bones in older animals
- poor eggshells from laying hens
What are sources of vitamin D?
- sun exposure (only takes 15 min a day)
- sun-cured hays
- cod liver oil
- synthetic vitamin D in vitamin supplements
What is the other name for Vitamin E?
tocopherol
What are the functions of vitamin E?
- works with Se as anti-oxidant
- muscle structure
- reproduction
What are the symptoms of vitamin E deficiency?
- white muscle disease in lambs, calves, zoo animals (weak young animals with pale colored muscle)
- reproductive failure
- retained placenta in cattle, associated with low Se in diet
What is vitamin K involved in?
- cofactor during blood clotting
What do we see in vitamin K deficiencies?
- deficiency not seen because prevalent in feeds and microbes in GI tracts
- animals make vitamin K
What kind of things interfere with vitamin K deficiency?
- blood can't clot properly and animal can bleed to death if interference of absorption of K
- antinutritional factor called coumarin (in sweet clover) interferes
What are good sources of vitamin K?
- most feeds
- made by bacteria in ruminant GI tract and some species practice copophragy to obtain it because bacteria in intestines make this vitamin after absorption (by small intestine)
What water-soluble vitamins are there and why are they important?
-C- and B-complex vitamins
can't be stored so must be provided daily
-if excess, just excreted by urine
-vital for metabolic functions
How are B-vitamins received?
- microbes in rumen and cecum can make them and then be absorbed by small intestine
- if in cecum, must be absorbed by coprophagy
What is vitamin B-1 called?
thiamin
Are there usually thiamin deficiencies?
adequate amounts usually present in feed
What is thiaminase enzymes?
- destroy thiamin and can lead to deficiency
- present in some fish products; freezing makes it more active
- esp. prevalent in exotic animals like penguins
What happens with a human thiamin deficiency
- Beri-Beri (enlarged heart, numb extremities)
- Wernicke's encephalopathy (mental confusion)
What is vitamin B-2 otherwise called?
Riboflavin
Why is vitamin B-2 important?
- FAD- enzyme
What are good sources of riboflavin?
- green forages
- milk
- meat/fish meal
- NOT grain (needs to be supplemented)
What happens with riboflavin deficiencies?
- reduced growth rate
- reproductive failure in sows
- curled toe paralysis in birds
- vision and eye abnormalities
Why is niacin important?
- coenzyme, present in NAD, NADP
What happens with a deficiency of niacin?
- reduced growth (diarrhea, vomiting)
- dermatitis (skin problems)
- pellagra- most common (in humans bright red tongue, mouth lesions, anorexia, nausea)
Where can you find niacin?
- found in grains, but not readily accessible for monogastric animals, so livestock or companion monogastric diets will have in premix
What is pantothenic acid important for?
important coenzyme
Where can you find pantothenic acid?
grains low, so need in premix for monogastrics
What does a deficiency of panothenic acid result in?
- reduced growth
- loss of hair
- dermatitis and skin lesions
- fatty liver
What is vitamin B-12 otherwise called?
cobalamin
cobalt part of structure
Where is vitamin B-12 found?
- only in animal tissue and in rumen microbes (if enough cobalt present)
What does a cobalamin deficiency cause?
- reproductive failure in sows
- eggs that don't hatch from breeding hens
What is usually the cause of a biotin deficiency?
- raw egg white consumption because contains substance that binds to biotin making it unavailable
- sold as supplement to horse owners to make stronger hooves
What animals may be deficient in choline and what does it cause?
- swine--reproductive failure
- poultry- slipped tendon (impossible to walk)
What does a folacin deficiency cause?
- reduced growth
- reduced reproductive performance (and birth defects)
- increased folacin helps immune function
What is pyridoxine (B6) used for?
- coenzyme
- can affect growth hormones, insulin, and sex hormones
Symptoms of B6 deficiency?
- neurological convulsions
- skin related issues
What animals can synthesize vitamin C (asorbic acid)? Can't?
-Can- mammals and avian species
-can't- humans, non-human primates, guinea pigs
-rabbits do better in captive setting with supplemented vitamin C
What does a deficiency of vitamin C cause?
- scurvy (edema, weight loss, emaciation, diarrhea leading to severe strucural deficits)
What is intake energy
potential energy available
Digestible energy
intake energy-feces energy lost
Metabolizable energy?
digestible energy-energy lost as urine and gases
Net energy?
metabolizable energy-energy lost as heat
What is the most popular feed and why?
grain (corn and sorghum) because of availability and high energy
what is fumonisin?
type of mycotoxin fatal to horses
What is milo?
processed sorghum grain
What are mycotoxins?
poison produced by actively growing mold
What are total digestible nutrients?
-for beef cattle
-digestible carb + digestible protein+digestible fat x 2.5
What animal can't digestible energy be calculated in?
chickens
Rank roughages, protein supplements, fats/oils, mineral supplements, grains as highest to lowest energy
fats/oils, grains, protein supplements, roughages, mineral supplements
Rank fescue hay, soybean meal, magnesium oxide, and barley grain as highest to lowest energy
barley grain, soybean meal, fescue hay, magnesium oxide
What are the 5 types of grain used in feeds?
corn, sorghum, oat grain, barley grain, wheat grain
What are the pros and cons of feeding corn?
- rich in starch
- good source of carbs
- 75% in US because grows in most part of US
- can be fed to all species
- digestible, palatable
- no nutritional problems
- dense in energy
- could have fumonisin
What are the pros and cons of feeding sorghum?
- not as high yielding as corn and grows in regions with less rainfall
- heat-resistant, more pest-resistant than corn
- needs to be processed (milo), in this form energy equivalent to corn
What are the pros and cons of feeding oat grain?
- more expensive, mainly for horses
- fibrous coating so high in fiber
- less energy but good for horses because of high fiber and starch readily digested
- mold resistant, no mycotoxins
What are the pros and cons of feeding barley grain
- needs to be processed
What are the pros and cons of feeding wheat grain
- high in energy, no outer fibrous layer
- forms pasty mass inside anbimal if consumed in large amounts
What are the pros and cons of feeding fats/oils?
- high in energy
- improve palatability because less dustiness
- plants and animals are sources of it
- ruminants can't digest more than 5% fat, extra wasted in feces
What are the pros and cons of feeding potatoes/tubers?
- high starch content, high energy
- sweet potato slurry with low pH can damage cow teeth
What is CCK and what does it do?
- cholecystokinin
- hormone released into blood after food intake by endocrine cells in small intestine, signals hypothalamus to stop eating
How does taste effect intake in birds?
- not a factor in birds
How does taste effect intake in cattle and horses?
- horses like molassas and citrus
- cattle like sweets and cottonseed hulls
How do high moisture feeds effect intake?
- high moisture feed like lush grass will make an animal feel full before it has enough nutrients, leads to diarrhea, need to supplement with dry feed
What does "as-fed" mean?
DM (dry matter) + moisture
What are the pros of low calorie pet food and what are the things to avoid?
- more fiber/cellulose, less digestible and less energy
- cellulose from peanut hulls or crystalline fiber should be avoided
What does the AAFCO do and what is its full name?
American Association for Feed Control Officials
- researches nutritional needs of animals
- publish guidelines of correct way to label animal foods and correct way to handle foods safely for both humans and animals
What feeds are affected by mycotoxins?
corn, peanut, cottonseed
What was the mycotoxin pet food scare about in 2005?
- Diamond Pet Foods had over 90ppm of aflatoxin in its Nature's Recipe food
- caused diarrhea, vomiting, death
What are the ways mold can occur?
- spores
- dispersion by air, wind, rain, birds, insects
- crop damage (esp when outer coating of grain compromised)
- insect damage
- plant weakened by drought
- bird damage
What is one way to prevent mold growth?
preservatives
How common is aflatoxin and why is it so bad?
- 1/3 corn of NC
- potent liver toxin, can lead to liver cancer or death
- young animals more susceptible
- reduced gain, efficiency, milk production are symptoms
- carcinogenic
What level of aflatoxin is safe for dairy cows, beef cattle?
dairy cows: less than 20ppb
beef cattle: 200ppb
other animals: 100ppb
What does the NCDA regulate?
NC Department of Agriculture
- regulate feed health for consumer at state level
What does the FDA regulate"?
medicated feed
must have "medicate" on it; withdrawal period must be stated too
Who regulates niche markets?
AAFCO
What are the things you should know in buying feed?
- nutrient requirements of animal feeding
- vocab used in trade
- price trends online
- sources of credit, interest rates
- what to avoid in feed (high moisture feeds don't store for long)
- government regulations for feeding
What are the 3 advantages of premix?
allows even mixing of large batch of food, contains high concentration of drug, vitamin, or mineral; is in carrier like rice hulls
Where can you find nutritional info?
NRC and AAFCO
Who regulates meat safety?
USDA and FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Services) which is part of USDA
What are the rankings of most to least poisonous bacteria to humans?
campylobacter, salmonella, shigella, e coli 0157H7 , yersinia, listeria, vibro
What is the main problem with maximum profit diet formulation?
data intake/output of animal is hard to collect
What are premixes usually added to?
soybean diet and corn
What is the estimate by the CDC on food-borne diseases?
76 million people in US get food-borne or diarrhea-related illness each year, 300,000 hospitalized and 5,000 die annually
What happened at Jack in the Box in 1993
e coli outbreak, took immediate action, started HAACP program (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points)