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126 Cards in this Set

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3 main elements of CT
Ground substance, fibers, reticular fibers
ground substance
fills space between cells
3 types of fibers
collagen, elastic, reticular
collagen fibers
form thick bundles, high tensile strength, stronger than steel
elastic fibers
long thin, branching, stretchable, made of elastin
reticular fibers
fine network of collagen fibers, surround small blood vessels
blast / cyte
immature / mature
blast cells
actively mitotic, secrete ground substance
cyte cells
maintain the health of the matrix but can revert back to blast cells to regenerate
fibroblasts
connective tissue proper
chondroblasts
cartilage
osteoblasts
bone
connective tissue proper has 2 types of CT which are?
loose CT, dense CT
loose connective tissue has 3 types which are?
areolar, adipose, reticular
areolar
gel-like matrix with WBC's and all 3 fibers
adipose
gel-like matrix with fat cells packed tightly
reticular
gel-like matrix with reticular fibers support WBC's
Dense CT has 2 types
dense regular / irregular
dense regular
packed bundles of collagen run parallel to direction of pull; very resistant; forms tendons and ligaments
dense irregular
collagen fiber bundles are thicker and arranged irregularly; in dermis of skin and GI tract
Cartilage
tough, flexible, avascular, 80% water, no nerve supply
hyaline cartilage
most abundant in the body, mostly collagen fibers, covers ends of bone to absorb compression also found in tip of nose
fibrocartilage
less firm than hyaline, absorbs compressive, resists tension and heavy pressure, forms the intervertebral discs
elastic
similar to hyaline but many more elastin fibers, found in pinna of ear and epiglottis
epidermis
outer protective layer, avascular
dermis
fibrous connective tissue; vascularised
hypodermis
below skin, mostly adipose and some areolar, function: fat storage, insulator, shock absorber, anchors skin to muscle
keratinocytes
waterproof, produces fibrous protein keratin, replaced every 25-45 days
melanocytes
deepest layer of epidermis, makes melanin
langerhans cells
macrophages, made for immunity
merkel cells
touch receptor
laters of epidermis thin and thick (deep to superficial)
stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidium, stratum corneum
stratum basale
deepest layer, single row
stratum spinosum
several layers, melanin granules, UV protection, langerhans cells
stratum granulosum
3-5 layers, keratin containing
stratum lucidium
absent in thin skin, few rows of clear dead flat keratinocytes
stratum corneum
20-30 cell layers thick, primary protection
basal cell skin cancer
99% cure rate rarely metastisizes
temperature regulation
below 90 degrees sweat glands secrete approx. .5L per day; above 90 blood vessels dilate and sweat glands increase activity, can leave 12L of sweat in 1 day
exterorecepters respond to what?
external stimuli
excretion in skin
sweat, ammonia, urca, uric acid
detection of skin cancer
ABCDE
Asymmetry, Border Irregularity, Colors, Diameter, Elevation
stages of melanoma
0- curable top layer of epidermis
1- dermis invaded
2- tumor almost 4mm thick
3- lymph nodes and skin affected
4- metastisizes into lung, liver, brain
DNA bases purine and pyrimidine
purine- A and G

pyrimidine- C and T
what is an oncogene
cancer gene
First degree burn
red, pain, swelling and blisters 2-3 day repair
second degree burn
epidermis and upper dermis, 3-4 week repair
third degree burn
epidermis, dermis, often hypodermis, grafting necessary, can cause suffocation on face
cold sores
herpes symplex virus
number of bones in human skeletan
206
long bones
much longer than they are wide; arms, legs, fingers, toes
short bones
cube shaped; wrist, ankles
flat bones
thin, flat slightly curved; sternum, ribs, skull bones
irregular bones
complicated shapes; vertebrae, hip bones
functions of bones
support- frame
protection- organs
movement- bones are lever
mineral storage- maintains blood levels
hematopoiesis
bones contain several differrent tissues which are...
nervous tissue, cartilage, CT, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue
diaphysis
shaft, thick collar of compact bone
epiphyses
ends of bone, exterior is compact, interior is spongy bone
epiphyseal line
where bones lengthen before adulthood
periosteum
double layered membrane, covers surface of bone
periosteum
innervated, lymphatic supply, vascularized, attached to bone by sharpeys fibers
sharpeys fibers
collagen fibers, very dense at anchor points for tendons and ligaments
endosteum
delicate membrane, covers trabiculae, also contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts
osteon
rings of lamella
bone growth requires what hormones
T3, T4, sex hormones
Bone maintenance how much is recycled every week
5-7% of bone mass is recycled every week, spongy bone is replaced every 3-4 years, compact bone every 10 years
non-displaced
bones aligned
displaced fracture
bones out of alignment
complete fracture
bone broken through
incomplete fracture
part of bone is still connected
linear orientation of break
parallel to long axis
transverse orientation of break
perpendicular to long axis
between lamellae ar cavities called...
lacunae
lacunae are connected by...
canaliculi
circumferential lamellae
around the entire shaft
trabeculae
resist stress, bone running in different directions VERY STRONG
hematopoietic tissue
red blood cells made in red marrow
compressed fx
bone is crushed
spiral fx
ragged break due to excessive twisting
epiphyseal fx
seperates the epiphyses from the diaphyses
depressed fx
broken bone is pressed inwards -skull fx
Greenstick fx
bone breaks incompletely like a green stick
osteomalacia
soft bones
rickets
bones deform, legs bow
osteoporosis
bone mass reduced; spongy bone of spine is most vulnerable
synarthroses
immovable
amphiarthroses
slightly movable
diarthroses
freely movable joints; synovial joints
fibrous
immovable to slightly movable
cartilaginous
rigid/slightly movable
synovial
freely moving
3 types of fibrous joints
sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
sutures
only skull bones
syndesmoses
bones connected by ligament, vary in length
gomphoses
peg in socket fibrous joint tooth in bony alveolar socket only
2 types of cartiliginous joints
synchondroses, symphyses
synchonroses
bone to bone joint (immovable) synarthrotic
symphyses
hyaline cartilage is fused to a pad of fibrocartilage; allows limited movement of joint
4 types of synovial joints
articular cartilage, joint cavity, articular capsule, synovial fluid; they are freely movable
bursae
flattened sacs
tendon sheath
elongated bursae that wraps completely around a tendon
3 types of muscle
skeletal, cardiac, smooth
skeletal muscle
made of several types of tissue
-muscle fibers
-blood vessels
-nerve fibers
-connective tissue
epimysium
covering that surrounds whole muscle
fascicle
a group of muscle fibers
perimysium
covering around fasicle
muscle fiber
muscle cells
myofibrils
contractile element of muscle cells
striations
made from repeating series of dark A bands, light I band
endomysium
CT that surrounds each muscle fiber
H zone
lighter stripe in middle of A band (relaxed muscles only)
M line
bisects H zone and A band
Z disc
bisects I band
sarcomere
region between z discs
myofilaments
thick filaments (myosin) thin filaments (actin)
thick filaments
form lenth of A band
thin filaments
form I band and extend into A band
nebulin
protein that forms Z discs, anchor thin filaments
desmin
fine protein strands that form M line
myosin
protien that makes up the thick filaments has 2 heads and long tail (2 twisted polypeptide chain)
myosin heads
link thick and thin filaments together
thick filaments structure
binding sites for actin and ATP
thin filament structure
in a relaxed muscle tropomyosin blocks active sites of actin
troponin
TnI- bonds actin
TnT- binds to tropomyosin and positions it on actin
TnC- binds Calcium ions
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
surrounds each myofibril
T-tubule
formed from SR; tubes taht wrap around each myofibril; conduct nerve impulses deep inside muscle cells