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52 Cards in this Set

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islets of Langerhans
cell clusters in the pancreas that form the endocrine part of that organ; secrete insulin and other hormones
Pituitary Gland
small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain. It is sometimes called the master gland of the body because all the other endocrine glands depend on its secretions for stimulation
Pituitary Gland Disorders
Oversecretion of the pituitary hormone human growth hormone can cause gigantism if it occurs before growth of the long bones is complete, or acromegaly if it begins during adulthood. Undersecretion of human growth hormone can lead to dwarfism if experienced during childhood, and decreased endocrine function accompanied by lethargy and loss of sexual capacity in the adult.
pineal gland
A small, cone-shaped organ in the brain of most vertebrates that secretes the hormone melatonin
thyroid gland
A two-lobed endocrine gland found in all vertebrates, located in front of and on either side of the trachea in humans, and producing various hormones, such as triiodothyronine and calcitonin
thyroid gland function
The primary function of the thyroid is production of hormones:

-thyroxine (T4)
-triiodothyronine (T3)
and calcitonin, which regulates calcium-phosphorus metabolism
thyroid gland disorders
goiter - iodine deficiency
thyroid hormone is responsible for growth.In humans, children born with thyroid hormone deficiency will not grow well, and brain development can be severely impaired, in the condition referred to as cretinism.
parathyroid gland
A set of four small glands on the undersurface of the thyroid gland that function in the endocrine system. The parathyroid glands secrete a hormone that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus.

The parathyroid glands are endocrine glands in the neck, usually located within the thyroid gland, which produce parathyroid hormone.
parathyroid gland anatomy
There are two types of cells in the parathyroid glands parathyroid chief cells and oxyphil cells
parathyroid diseases
The single major disease of parathyroid glands is overactivity of one or more of the parathyroid lobes which make too much parathyroid hormone causing a potentially serious calcium imbalance. This is called hyperparathyroidism; it leads to hypercalcemia and osteitis fibrosa cystica. Since hyperparathyroidism was first described in 1925, the symptoms have become known as "moans, groans, stones, and bones." The primary treatment for this disease is the surgical removal of the faulty lobe.
ovaries
One of the paired female reproductive organs that produce ova and certain sex hormones, including estrogen
gigantism
Excessive growth of the body or any of its parts, especially as a result of oversecretion of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland
thymus gland
A gland located behind the breastbone that functions in the development of the immune system. The thymus is large in infancy and early childhood but begins to atrophy between ages eight and ten
dawrfism
dwarfism usually results from a combination of genetic factors and endocrine malfunction. It can also be caused, however, by acquired conditions, such as kidney disease. Pituitary dwarfism is caused by an insufficiency of the pituitary growth hormone (hypopituitary dwarfism).
*Cretinism is a type of dwarfism accompanied by mental retardation and distortion of the body, resulting from an insufficiency of thyroid hormone
Hyperthyroidism
an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
Jet Lag
Jet lag is a temporary disorder that causes fatigue, insomnia, and othersymptoms as a result of air travel across time zones.
Exocrine System
Exocrine glands have ducts that carry their secretory product to a surface. These glands include the sweat, sebaceous, and mammary glands and, the glands that secrete digestive enzymes.
Endocrine System
The endocrine glands do not have ducts to carry their product to a surface. They are called ductless glands. The word endocrine is derived from the Greek terms "endo," meaning within, and "krine," meaning to separate or secrete. The secretory products of endocrine glands are called hormones and are secreted directly into the blood and then carried throughout the body where they influence only those cells that have receptor sites for that hormone.
TSH
anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the function of the thyroid gland
growth hormone
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; promotes growth in humans
gonadotropic hormone
hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and placenta; stimulates the gonads and controls reproductive activity
adh
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
prolactin
A pituitary hormone that stimulates and maintains the secretion of milk
calcitonin
A peptide hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in humans, that acts to lower plasma calcium and phosphate levels without augmenting calcium accretion
parathyroid hormone
peptide hormone produced by the parathyroid glands that regulates the amount of calcium in the body
insulin
natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar glucose in the blood. Insulin permits cells to use glucose for energy. Cells cannot utilize glucose without insulin
glucagon
A polypeptide hormone secreted by alpha cells that initiates a rise in blood sugar levels by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen by the liver
epinephrine
A catecholamine hormone of the adrenal medulla that is the most potent stimulant of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in increased heart rate and force of contraction, vasoconstriction or vasodilation, relaxation of bronchiolar and intestinal smooth muscle, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, and other metabolic effects
cortisone
hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that is important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It is used in medicine to treat some forms of arthritis and to reduce inflammation.
estrogen
group of hormones, secreted mainly by the ovaries, that influence the female reproductive system in many ways, notably in preparing the body for ovulation and in the development of female secondary sex characteristics.
androgens
A steroid, such as testosterone or androsterone, that controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics
Exocrine System
Exocrine glands have ducts that carry their secretory product to a surface. These glands include the sweat, sebaceous, and mammary glands and, the glands that secrete digestive enzymes.
Endocrine System
The endocrine glands do not have ducts to carry their product to a surface. They are called ductless glands. The word endocrine is derived from the Greek terms "endo," meaning within, and "krine," meaning to separate or secrete. The secretory products of endocrine glands are called hormones and are secreted directly into the blood and then carried throughout the body where they influence only those cells that have receptor sites for that hormone.
TSH
anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the function of the thyroid gland
growth hormone
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; promotes growth in humans
gonadotropic hormone
hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and placenta; stimulates the gonads and controls reproductive activity
adh
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
prolactin
A pituitary hormone that stimulates and maintains the secretion of milk
calcitonin
A peptide hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in humans, that acts to lower plasma calcium and phosphate levels without augmenting calcium accretion
parathyroid hormone
peptide hormone produced by the parathyroid glands that regulates the amount of calcium in the body
insulin
natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar glucose in the blood. Insulin permits cells to use glucose for energy. Cells cannot utilize glucose without insulin
glucagon
A polypeptide hormone secreted by alpha cells that initiates a rise in blood sugar levels by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen by the liver
epinephrine
A catecholamine hormone of the adrenal medulla that is the most potent stimulant of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in increased heart rate and force of contraction, vasoconstriction or vasodilation, relaxation of bronchiolar and intestinal smooth muscle, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, and other metabolic effects
cortisone
hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that is important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It is used in medicine to treat some forms of arthritis and to reduce inflammation.
estrogen
group of hormones, secreted mainly by the ovaries, that influence the female reproductive system in many ways, notably in preparing the body for ovulation and in the development of female secondary sex characteristics.
androgens
A steroid, such as testosterone or androsterone, that controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics
tetany
An abnormal condition characterized by periodic painful muscular spasms and tremors, caused by faulty calcium metabolism and associated with diminished function of the parathyroid glands.
osteoporosis
A disease in which the bones become extremely porous, are subject to fracture, and heal slowly, occurring especially in women following menopause and often leading to curvature of the spine from vertebral collapse.
erythrocytes
red,no nucleus,disc shape carry O2
leukocytes
have a nucleus and cytoplasm and help protect the body from infection and disease through specialized neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes
thrombocytes
platelet.
A minute, irregularly shaped, disklike cytoplasmic body found in blood plasma that promotes blood clotting and has no definite nucleus, no DNA, and no hemoglobin
spleen
An organ in the lymphatic system, in the upper left part of the abdomen, that filters out harmful substances from the blood. The spleen also produces white blood cells, removes worn-out red blood cells from circulation, and maintains a reserve blood supply for the body.