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37 Cards in this Set

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what bony markings denote the divisions between anterior, middle, and posterior in the inferior cranial fossae?
between anterior and middle is the lesser wings of the sphenoid. Between the middle and posterior is the petrous portions of the temporal bones.
the anterior portion of the cranial fossa contains what?>
frontal lobe
the middle portion of the cranial fossa holds what?
temporal lobes
the posterior portion of the cranial fossa holds what?
the occipital lobe and the cerebellum
from anterior to posterior, what are the foramina of the inferior cranial fossae and what travels through them?
foramina of the cribiform plate (CN I)
optic canal (CN II and opthalmic artery)
superior orbital fissure (CN III, IV, VI, and V1)
foramen rotundem (V2)
foramen ovale (CN V3)
foramen spinosum (middle meningeal artery)
foramen lacerum (cartillage)
internal auditory meatus (VII, VIII)
jugular foramen (IX, X, XI and origin of internal jugular vein)
hypoglosseal canal (XII)
foramen magnum
1. crista galli
2. cribiform plate
3. lesser wing of sphenoid
4. greater wing of sphenoid
5. anterior clinoid process
6. hypophyseal fossa
7. posterior clinoid process
8. squamous part of temporal bone
9. petrous part of temporal bone
10. clivus
11. groove for internal carotid artery
12. groove for middle meningeal artery
13. groove for sigmoid sinus
14. groove for transverse sinus
label the processes and fossae
what remains constant between humans and other primates in terms of neural anatomy?
types or classes of neurons, types or classes of synapses, and neurotransmitters
what are differences in terms of neural anatomy between humans and other primates?
humans have a larger brain : body mass ratio, more neurons, and more neural connections (especially in areas of tertiary association of the cerebral cortex).
which layer of the dura mater contains periosteum? which layer is found only in the cranial vault, not in the spinal cord?
the outer layer is periosteum abd is only found in the cranial vault
what would you find in the subarachnoid space?
arteries to the brain, CSF and arachnoid trabeculae
the brain is very easily damaged and reshaped because it lacks what?
connective tissue.
what are the dura mater reflections and what is their orientations?
the falx cerebri seperates left and right cerebrum. the tentorium cerebelli seperates the cerebrum and cerebellum. the falx cerebelli seperates the left and right inferior cerebellum. the tentorial incisure is the rim of the tentorium cerebelli. the diaphragma sellae is the "roof" of the pituitary.
the meningeal arteries follow what structure and then supply blood to what structure?
they follow the dura mater and then supply blood to the bone of the cranial vault
the pterion is superficial to what structure?
a branch of the middle meningeal artery
1. ethmodial
2. accessory middle meningeal (inconsistant)
3. middle
4. associated pharyngeal
5. occipital (mastoid)
6. vertebral
label the arteries
what cranial nerve travels through two foramina in the cranial fossa?
CN XI goes through foramin magnum and jugular foramen
what two types of nerves supply the dura mater?
sympathetics from the vessels and sensory nerves (associated with pain)
what nerves supply sensory information from the dura mater?
the trigeminal C1 - C3 (infratentorial post. cranial fossa) via CN X and XII.
what arteries supply blood to the brain?
the internal carotid, the vertebral arteries which join to give rise to the basilar artery
what arteries make up the arterial circle anastamosis before the brain is penetrated?
the basilar artery and the internal carotid artery
how do the cerebral veins compare to other veins?
they are tougher with thicker walls. They are non expandable and non collapsable
how does CSF drain into the venous sinuses
arachnoid villi are one way valves that allow drainage from subarachnoid space to the sinuses
what is the last sinus in drainage pattern that leads to jugular foramen?
sigmoid sinus
1. sup. sagittal
2. inf. sagittal
3. straight
4. confluens
5. occipital
6. transverse
7. sigmoid
label the sinuses
what vein drains all the structures of the brain stem and cerebellum and then leads to the straight sinus?
great cerebral vein
what is clinically significant about the junction of the great cerebral vein and the straight sinus?
it is very fragile, especially in newborns
1.sphenoparietal
2. sup. petrosal
3. inf. petrosal
4. transverse
5. confluens
6. straight
7. sigmoid
8. basilar
9. intercavernous
10. cavernous
name the venous sinuses
what venous sinus drains into the vertebral veins?
basilar sinus
why are brain surgeons limited in terms of pulling parts of the brain?
could bust a vein
what artery is found in the cavernous sinus?
internal carotid
what are the regions of the internal carotid artery?
cervical, petrous, cavernous, and supraclinoid
what strucutres are found in the cavernous sinus?
CN III, IV, V1, V2, and VI, pituitary gland and internal carotid artery
epidural hemorrhage usually is from what arteries?
middle meningeal
what are two common brain herniations seen with epidural hemorrhage?
uncal herniation (over edge of tentorium cerebelli with brainstem displacement) and tonsillar herniation (cerebellum in foramen magnum)
what is the sequence of detrimental events seen in epidural hemmorrhage with brain herniation?
ipsilateral CN III compression (pupil fixed and dilated), CN III opthalmoplegia, coma, contralateral CN III compression (pupil dilated and fixed), cerebellar tonsil herniation into foramen magnum, compression of medulla and vital centers, death................
what vessels usually cause subdural hemmorrages and what population is usually effected?
veins and dural sinuses usually cause this in the elderly bc their veins have shrunk and become tense.
what usually causes a subarachnoid hemorrhage?
aneurysm (artery pops)