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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what structures are contained in the forebrain?
cerebrum (telencephalon) and thalamus (diencephalon)
what structures are in the hindbrain?
brainstem structures and cerebellum (metencephalon)
what structures make up the brainstem?
medulla (myencephalon), pons (metencephalon), and midbrain (mesencephalon)
what is the order of structures of the brain in terms of caudal to rostral?
spinal cord, medulla, pons, midbrain, thalamus, cerebrum
what strucute must be traversed to reach the cerebrum?
the thalamus
what effect do gyri have on the brain?
they increase its surface area AKA its cerebro-cortical area
what connects the cerebellum to the pons?
the cerebellar pedunkle
what divides the frontal from the parietal lobe?
the central sulcus
what seperates the parietal lobe from the temporal lobe?
the lateral fissure
describe the structure of the insular lobe.
it has 4 gyri
the abducens nerve exits the pons between what two arteries?
the anterior inferior cerebellar and the internal auditory
the occulomotor nerve exits the midbrain between what two arteries?
posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar
1. post. cerecral
2. pontine
3. internal auditory
4. ant. inf. cerebellar
5. post. spinal
6. ant. spinal
7. post. inf. cerebellar
8. vertebral
9. basilar
10. sup cerebellar
11. post. communicating
12. ant. cerbral
13. ant. communicating
14. internal carotid
15. middle cerebral
label the arteries
describe the anastomotic connections distal to the cerebral arterial circle (willis).
there are none
the central arteries are divided how? what are the names of these divisions.
by their position in terms of inside (medial) the circle of willis or outside (lateral) of the circle of willis. They are named anteriomedial (contains opthalmic artery), anterior lateral (lateral striate), posterior medial, and posterior lateral
what are the recurrent arterial branches near the circle of willis and from what arteries do they branch?
the medial striate artery branches off ant. cerebral. the anterior choroidal branches off the internal carotid and the post. choroidal branches off the post. cerebral
what are the names of two specefic pontine arteries?
the paramedan artery and the long and short circumferential artery
the middle cerebral artery supplies blood to what parts of the brain?
the lateral aspects of the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes.
the anterior cerbral artery supplies blood to what aspects of the brain?
the medial aspects of the frontal and parietal lobes
the posterior cerebral artery supplies blood to what parts of the brain?
the medial aspects of the occipital and temporal lobes
the two causes of ischemic stroke are?
occlusive vascular disease and hypotension
occlusive vascular disease affects mainly what kind of arteries? chronic hypertension?
OVD affects large arteries, hypotension affects small arteries
what condition is characterized by partial occlussion of an artery that may result in vasospasm which temporarily occludes the vessel resulting in temporary loss of function distal to the obstruction?
TIA (transient ischemic attack)
what immediate treatment can be used for stroke and what is a new alternative treatment?
administer tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) within three hours of stroke onset. Desmoteplase from vampire bats is the new, more effective treatment that has a much less risk of bleeding
stroke due to hypotension affects what areas?
watershed areas which are border zones between two regions each supplied by a specefic artery
what does glutamate have to do with ischemia?
reduced oxygen levels during ischemia cause a rise in extracellular glutamate which causes post synaptic neurons to take up more calcium and die.
what is delayed degeneration in terms of mild ischemia?
loss of neurons through apoptosis due to increased glutamate from mild ischemia over a period of time
what part of an aneurysm usualy breaks and why?
the neck of the aneurism is thin without smooth muscle
most saccular (berry) aneurysms occur where?
in the anterior circulation
what are two ways aneurysms may cause damage?
they may rupture leading to ischemia or grow and put pressure on surrounding structures like nerves
what nerves are most susceptable to aneurysm compression?
optic, oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, and trigeminal (opthalmic)
what type of aneurysm is much less likely to pop, but will cause massive damage to the brain?
a giant atherosclerotic aneurysm
what condition is characterized by a tangle of arteries and veins connecting directly (no capillaries) which grow and rob the brain of its blood supply (ischemia) and may cause seizures or hemorrhage due to high pressure in the vessels??
arteriovenous malformation
hypertension can cause what two pathological states in the brain?
lacunar infarcts (occlusive) and microaneurysms (potentially hemorrhagic) in the distal arteries.