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63 Cards in this Set

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a ------ is a group of similiar cells joined together by their intercellular materials to perfrom a common function
tissue
tissues are the building blockes of
organs
the four primary tissues in the body are:
epithelial, muscle, connective, and nerve
epithelial tissue covers the body surface, ------- body cavaties and hollow organs and serves as the functional tissue of ------
line, and organs
epithelial is classified according to:
shape of individuial cell and arrangment of cells into layers
Shape of Epithelial cells:
squamous: scale like, pancake
cubodial: cubed shape
columnar: taller than they are wide
layers:
simple: one single layer
stratified: more than one layer
pseudostratified: false layering, appears to have 2 layers but really only has 1
transitional epithelium: cells that undergo a change in shape depending on the tissue.
modifications of Epithelium:
cilia: tiny hair like projections, lining respiratoy passage and fallopian tubes.
functions of Epithelium:
1) to protect body from damage
2) protects against water loss and bacteria
3) secrets products into blood stream
4) filters waste from the blood
5) absorption of digestive nutrients
6) specialazed sensory receptors
a ------ is a single cell or cluster of specialazed epthelial cells grouped together to form a specific secretory function
gland
exocrine glands:
empty their product into a duct, which then carries the secretion to some other location
endocrine glands:
"duct less gland" that secrets their products directly into the blood stream
what is the most abundant tissue in the body?
connective tissue
what are the functions of a CT?
supporting, anchoring, and binding various parts of the body
In addition CT also...
forms the framework for organs, protects and serves as a storage for fats.
all CT has three things in common:
ground substance, fibers, and cells
Ground Substance: a homogenous, ------ material into which Ct fibers are embedded. It may be ----, fluid or a gel state. serves as an ------ matrix.
amphorus, solid, intercellular
3 types of fibers:
1) collagenous fibers
2) elastic fibers
3) reticular fibers
most common fiber found in the CT is?
Collagenous
fibroblast-
"fiber forming cells" develop from fibrocytes and most common type of cell in the tissue
macrophages-
"large eating cells" remove dead cells
fat cells-
(adipocytes) looks like a signet ring
white blood cells-
leucocytes;destroy bacteria produce antibodies
they can leave the bloodstream
pigment cells-
melanocytes; provide skin pigment
mast cells-
found near small blood vessels, release:
heporin, serotonin
plasma cells-
formed during chronic inflammation. manufactures antibodies.
mesenchyme-
"mother of all connective tissue"
Mucous
(Whartons jelly) found in the unbilical cord, prevents kinking of the cord
cartilage CT are formed by cells called:

they are found in the matrix.....
chondrocytes

lacuna
the three types of cartilage are:
hyaline, elastic and fibrous
what is the most common type of cartilage:
hyaline
skin-integument is composed of what 2 layers:
epidermis and dermis
functions of skin:
1) protect from bacteria
2) sensation hot and cold
3) excretion removal of waste
4) regulate body temp.
5) vitamin d
6) provides a cosmetic appearance
prophase:
first and longest phase
each half of the chromosome is called?
chromatid
each half is attached to a point called a....
centromere
during prophase the nucleus changes into the form of.....
chromosomes and the nucleus dissappears
the chromotads line themselves across the equator
metaphase
anaphase:
"the moving phase" forming a cleavage furrow
the chromatids reach the opposite sides of the cell
telopahse
not a stage of mitosis
interphase
the basic unit of structure and function in a living organism
the cell
prokaryotic cells lack what?
membrane-bound organelles
example: bacteria cells
the controling center of the cell
nucleus
made of material called...and is composed mostly of nucleic acid called....
chromatin

dna
the site of Rna synthesis and storage
nucleolus
tiny protein factories within a cell
ribosomes
a series of parallel membranes which form channels through the cytoplasm
endoplasmic reticulum
serves as an assembly, packaging, and distribution center for products made within the cell
golgi body
small packets of digestive enzymes
lysosomes
"power house of the cell" energy
mitochondria
storage areas within the cytoplasm
vaculous
responsible for food synthesis storage and pigmentation
plastids
they helo provide support as well as movement of and within the cell
microtubules and microfilaments
tiny hair like structures that performs a specialized function in the cell
organelle
a plant organelle that may store starch of pigments
plastids
converts the chemical energy in food into a form that is more easily used
mitochondria
transport channels that are studded with ribosomes
rough er
modifies, collects, packages, and distributes proteins that are produced by the cell
golgi body
saclike storage structure found in both animal and plant cell
vacoles
traps energy from sunlight and converts it to chemical energy
chloroplasts
framework of filaments and fibers involved in cell support and movement
cytoskeleton
an organelle that serves as a protein factory
ribosomes