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439 Cards in this Set

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Ability
Ability refers to the capability of developing a skill or learning a task
Absorption
The taking in of substances by cells or membranes is absorption.
Abuse
Abuse refers to the continued use of any drug or compulsive behavior despite adverse consequences
Acetaminophen
Acetaminophen refers to a nonaspirin analgesic and antipyretic
Acetic acid
Acetic acid refers to a two-compound fatty acid that is used in the synthesis of lipids.
Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine refers to a type of neurotransmitter, which is a biochemical secreted at the axon ends of many neurons. It transmits nerve impulses across synapses.
Acetylcholinesterase
An enzyme that catalyzes breakdown of acetylcholine is acetylcholinesterase.
Acid
Acid refers to a substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen ions.
Actin
A protein in a muscle fiber that, together with myosin, is responsible for contraction and relaxation is actin.
Actin myofilament
Thin myofilament within the sarcomere is called actin myofilament.
Action potential
The sequence of electrical changes occurring when a nerve cell membrane is exposed to a stimulus that exceeds its threshold is called action potential.
Action potentials
Action potentials refer to neural impulses
Active transport
Process that requires an expenditure of energy to move a substance across a cell membrane is referred to as active transport.
Acute
Acute refers to pertaining to a disease with abrupt onset, intense symptoms, and short duration. Compare with with chronic.
Adipose tissue
Fat-storing tissue is called adipose tissue.
ADP
ADP refers to adenosine diphosphate.
Aerobic
Producing energy for physical activity with oxygen is referred to as aerobic.
Aerobic endurance
The length of time a muscle can continue to contract using aerobic pathways is referred to as aerobic endurance.
Aerobic exercise
Exercise in which oxygen is used to produce ATP is aerobic exercise.
Aerobic respiration
Phase of cellular respiration that requires oxygen is aerobic respiration.
Amino acids
Small organic molecules with an amino group and a carboxyl group are called amino acids.
Amitotic
Incapable of mitosis, as in mature skeletal muscle fibers and osteocytes is called amitotic.
Anabolic steroids
Anabolic steroids refer to drugs derived from the male sex hormone, testosterone. They promote muscle growth and lean body mass.
Anaerobic
Producing energy for physical activity without oxygen is referred to as anaerobic.
Anaerobic respiration
Phase of cellular respiration that occurs in the absence of oxygen is anaerobic respiration.
Anaerobic threshold
The point at which muscle metabolism converts to anaerobic glycolysis is referred to as the anaerobic threshold.
Anatomy
Branch of science dealing with the form and structure of body parts is referred to as anatomy.
Androgen
A male sex hormone such as testosterone is called an androgen.
Androgens
Male sex hormones are referred to as androgens.
Androstenedione
Androstenedione refers to an androgenic steroid of weaker potency than testosterone.
Anemia
A condition of red blood cell or hemoglobin deficiency is called anemia.
Anterior
Pertaining to the front is referred to as anterior.
Antibodies
Antibodies refer to substances formed by white blood cells that recognize and destroy antigens.
Aponeurosis
A sheet of connective tissue by which certain muscles are attached to adjacent muscles is an aponeurosis.
Appendix
A small, tubular appendage that extends outward from the cecum of the large intestine is an appendix.
Arrector pili
A bundle of smooth muscle cells associated with a hair follicle, responsible for erection of the hair are referred to as arrector pili.
Arteries
Arteries refer to blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart and into the circulation.
Arterioles
Branches of the arteries are referred to as arterioles.
Artery
A vessel that transports blood away from the heart is an artery.
Aspect
A particular view of the body or one of its structures, or a part that faces in a particular direction, such as the anterior aspect is referred to as an aspect.
Asthma
Condition of the lungs in which widespread narrowing of airways occurs caused by contraction of smooth muscle, edema of the mucosa, and mucus in the lumen of the bronchi and bronchioles is called asthma.
Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis refers to a condition in which fatty substances accumulate on the inner linings of arteries.
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate, the biological energy molecule is called ATP.
Atpase
Atpase refers to an enzyme that causes ATP molecules to release the energy stored in the terminal phosphate bonds.
Atrophy
A wasting away or decrease in size of an organ or tissue is atrophy.
Attachment
Attachment refers to the enduring affectional tie that binds one person to another.
Autoimmune disease
Any disease in which antibodies fail to distinguish between foreign and self-antigens and attack the bodies own tissues is called an autoimmune disease.
Autonomic nervous system
A portion of the nervous system that controls the actions of the viscera is called the autonomic nervous system.
Axon
Axon refers to a nerve fiber that conducts a nerve impulse away from a neuron cell body.
Axon terminal
A swelling at the end of an axon that is designed to release a chemical substance onto another neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell is called axon terminal.
Axons
Neuron branches that transmit messages to other neurons are axons.
Biceps
Two-headed, especially applied to certain muscles is referred to as biceps.
Binding
The bringing together and integration of what is processed through different pathways or cells is referred to as binding.
Bone
Rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates is the bone.
Bone mass
Total mineral substance in a cross section of bone, generally expressed as grams per centimeter of length is a bone mass.
Brain
The complex mass of neural cells and related cells encased in the skull is a brain.
Bronchioles
The branching air passageways inside the lungs are called bronchioles.
Calmodulin
An intracellular protein that binds calcium ions and mediates many of the second-messenger effects of calcium is called calmodulin.
Calsequestrin
Calsequestrin refers to a protein found in smooth endoplasmic reticulum that reversibly binds and stores calcium ions, rendering calcium chemically unreactive until needed for such processes as muscle contraction.
Cancer
General term frequently used to indicate any of various types of malignant neoplasms, most of which invade surrounding tissues, may metastasize to several sites, and are likely to recur after attempted removal and to cause death of the patient is called cancer.
Capillaries
Capillaries refer to the smallest of the blood vessels and the sites of exchange between the blood and tissue cells.
Capillary
Capillary refers to a small blood vessel that connects an arteriole and a venule.
Capillary bed
Capillary bed refers to minute vessels one cell thick that create a junction between arterial and venous circulation. Gas and nutrient exchange occurs here between body cells and the bloodstream.
Carbohydrates
Compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Some carbohydrates are digestible and provide the body with energy. Others are not digestible but still have important functions.
Cardiac
Related to the heart is referred to as cardiac.
Cardiac muscle
Specialized type of muscle tissue found only in the heart is the cardiac muscle.
Cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular system refers to an organ system consisting of the heart and blood vessels, serving for the transport of blood. Compare with with circulatory system.
Cartilage
Cartilage refers to type of connective tissue in which cells are located within lacunae and are separated by a semisolid matrix.
Catabolism
Metabolic process that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones is referred to as catabolism.
Cell
Cell refers to the smallest subdivision of a tissue considered to be alive
Cell body
A portion of a nerve cell that includes a cytoplasmic mass and a nucleus, and from which the nerve fibers extend is called a cell body.
Center
According to Piaget, to focus one's attention is referred to as center.
Central
Located relatively close to the medial axis of the body, as in the central nervous system is referred to as central.
Cephalocaudal
From head to toe is referred to as cephalocaudal.
Cheek
Side of the face forming the lateral wall of the mouth is a cheek.
Chemical energy
Energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances is called chemical energy.
Chloride
Compound containing chlorine, such as, salts of hydrochloric acid are called chloride.
Cholesterol
Cholesterol refers to a lipid produced by body cells used to synthesize steroid hormones and excreted into the bile.
Chromosome
Rod-like structure that condenses from chromatin in a cell’s nucleus during mitosis is the chromosome.
Chronic
Chronic refers to long lasting. Pertaining to a disease that progresses slowly and has a long duration. Compare with with acute.
Cisterna
A fluid-filled space or sac, such as the cisterna chyli of the lymphatic system and a cisterna of the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi complex is called cisterna.
Cisternae
Enlarged portions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum near the actin and myosin filaments of a muscle fiber are called the cisternae.
Clitoris
Small erectile organ located in the anterior portion of the vulva is a clitoris.
Concentric
Concentric refers to having the same center.
Congenital
Present at birth is called congenital.
Connective tissue
Connective tissue refers to one of the basic types of tissue that includes bone, cartilage, blood, loose and fibrous connective tissue.
Contractility
Muscle cell's ability to move by shortening is called contractility.
Contraction
Contraction refers to shorten or develop tension, an ability highly developed in muscle cells.
Contraction phase
One of the three phases of muscle contraction is referred to as the contraction phase.
Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease refers to angina pectoris, chest pains caused by insufficient supply of blood and thus oxygen to the heart
Creatine
Creatine refers to a nutritional supplement, this compound is synthesized in the body from amino acids or extracted from fish and meat
Creatine phosphate
A muscle biochemical that stores energy is referred to as creatine phosphate.
Cross section
A cut perpendicular to the long axis of the body or an organ is called cross section.
Crystals
Crystals refers to large arrays of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds
Cycling
Using different steroids over set periods of time to minimize side effects and maximize desired strength- and muscle-enhancing effects is called cycling.
Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm refers to the contents of a cell excluding the nucleus and cell membrane.
Cytoskeleton
A system of protein tubules and filaments that reinforces a cell’s three-dimensional form and provides scaffolding and transport tracts for organelles is a cytoskeleton.
Delusions
False, persistent beliefs unsubstantiated by sensory or objective evidence are delusions.
Depolarization
The loss of an electrical charge on the surface of a membrane is referred to as depolarization.
Depolarize
Depolarize refers to reduce the resting potential of a cell membrane from about -70 millivolts toward zero.
Diabetes
Any disease characterized by chronic polyuria of metabolic origin is referred to as diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus
High blood glucose level and glucose in the urine due to a deficiency of insulin is called diabetes mellitus.
Diffusion
Random movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration toward one of lower concentration is referred to as diffusion.
Digestion
Breaking down of large nutrient molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed is called digestion.
Digestive system
System that processes food into absorbable units and eliminates indigestible wastes is referred to as digestive system.
Disability
A physical or health condition that stigmatizes or causes discrimination, is referred to as a disability.
Disease
The medical concept that distinguishes an impairment of the normal state of the organism by its particular group of symptoms and its specific cause is referred to as disease.
Disease prevention
Actions or behaviors designed to keep people from getting sick are referred to as disease prevention.
Displacement
A defense mechanism in which the individual directs aggressive or sexual feelings away from the primary object to someone or something safe is referred to as displacement.
Distal
Farther from the midline or origin is called distal.
Disuse
Disuse refers to theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is referred to as DNA.
Dominant
Pertaining to a genetic allele that is phenotypically expressed in the presence of any other allele is referred to as dominant. Pertaining to a trait that results from a dominant allele.
Drug
Any substance that, when consumed, alters one or more of the functions of the human body is referred to as a drug.
Dystrophin
Dystrophin refers to a protein comprising only 0.002% of the total protein in skeletal muscle that supports the cell membrane. Its absence causes muscular dystrophy.
Eccentric contraction
Force within a muscle less than that required to lift or move an object is an eccentric contraction.
Elasticity
The tendency of a stretched structure to return to its original dimensions when tension is released is elasticity.
Electrochemical gradient
A difference in ion concentration from one point to another resulting in a gradient of both chemical concentration and electrical charge is referred to as electrochemical gradient.
Electron
A small, negatively charged particle that revolves around the nucleus of an atom is called an electron.
Element
A basic chemical substance is an element.
Elements
Elements refers to substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical processes. Common elements in nutrition include carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and iron.
Elevation
Elevation refers to upward movement of a part of the body.
Elimination
Elimination refers to the physiologic excretion of drugs and other substances from the body.
Embryo
A prenatal stage of development after germ layers form but before the rudiments of all organs are present is referred to as an embryo.
Embryonic stage
The baby from the third through the eighth weeks following conception, during which time the major organ systems undergo rapid differentiation is an embryonic stage.
Emotions
Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior are called emotions.
Endocrine system
Body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones is called endocrine system.
Endomysium
The sheath of connective tissue surrounding each skeletal muscle fiber is called endomysium.
Endoplasmic reticulum
Organelle composed of a system of connected membranous tubules and vesicles along which protein synthesis occurs is called endoplasmic reticulum.
Endurance exercise
Endurance exercise refers to a form of physical exercise, such as running or swimming that promotes cardiopulmonary efficiency and fatigue resistance more than muscular strength. Compare with resistance exercise.
Energy
Energy refers to the capacity to do work
Environment
Environment refers to conditions and elements that make up the surroundings of the body.
Enzyme
A protein that catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction is referred to as an enzyme.
Enzymes
Organic substances that cause bodily changes and destruction of microorganisms are called enzymes.
Epimysium
The outer sheath of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle is called epimysium.
Epinephrine
A hormone the adrenal medulla secretes during times of stress is epinephrine.
Erection
Erection refers to the filling of tissues with blood making the structure rigid and elevated.
Estrogen
Estrogen refers to a generic term for several female sex hormones that promote growth of female sex characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle.
Excitability
The ability of a cell to respond to a stimulus, especially the ability of nerve and muscle cells to produce membrane voltage changes in response to stimuli is excitability.
Exocytosis
Exiting from the cell is called exocytosis.
Extension
Movement increasing the angle between parts at a joint is referred to as extension.
Extracellular fluid
Body fluids outside the individual cells are called extracellular fluid.
Extracellular matrix
Extracellular matrix refers to nonliving chemical substances located between connective tissue cells.
Extracellular space
Extracellular space refers to the space outside cells.
Eyelid
Palpebra is referred to as the eyelid.
Fascia
Fascia refers to a sheet of fibrous connective tissue that encloses a muscle.
Fascicle
A bundle of muscle or nerve fibers ensheathed in connective tissue are called a fascicle.
Fatigue
Period characterized by a reduced capacity to do work is fatigue.
Fertilization
The union of an egg cell and a sperm cell is referred to as fertilization.
Fetus
A human embryo after eight weeks of development is called a fetus.
Fiber
A slender threadlike structure or filament is called a fiber.
Fibrous connective tissue
Any connective tissue with a preponderance of fiber, such as areolar, reticular, dense regular, and dense irregular connective tissues is referred to as the fibrous connective tissue.
Frequency
Measured in the unit called the hertz, the number of sound waves or cycles per second, determining the pitch of the sound is a frequency.
Function
Function refers to in developmental psychology, action related to a structure, such as movement of a muscle, firing of a nerve, or activation of a mental representation
Fusiform
Spindle-shaped is called fusiform.
G actin
Globular protein molecules that, when bound together, form fibrous actin is referred to as G actin.
Gastrin
Gastrin refers to a hormone secreted by the stomach lining that stimulates secretion of gastric juice.
Gastrointestinal tract
Gastrointestinal tract refers to the main sites in the body used for digestion and absorption of nutrients. It consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.
Gene
Gene refers to portion of a DNA molecule that encodes the information to synthesize a protein, a control sequence, or TRNA or RRNA. The unit of inheritance.
Glucocorticoids
Adrenal cortex hormones that increase blood glucose levels and aid the body in resisting long-term stressors are referred to as glucocorticoids.
Glucose
A monosaccharide in the blood that is the primary source of cellular energy is called glucose.
Glycogen
A polysaccharide that stores glucose in the liver and muscles is glycogen.
Glycolysis
The conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid during cellular respiration is referred to as glycolysis.
Graded muscle responses
Variations in the degree of muscle contraction by changing either the frequency or strength of the stimulus are called graded muscle responses.
Gradient
A difference or change in any variable, such as pressure or chemical concentration, from one point in space to another is a gradient.
Gross anatomy
Bodily structure that can be observed without magnification is referred to as gross anatomy.
Growth
Growth refers to the process by which a structure enlarges.
Growth factor
A chemical messenger that stimulates mitosis and differentiation of target cells that have receptors for it is a growth factor.
Growth hormone
A hormone released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that promotes the growth of the organism is referred to as the growth hormone.
H zone
Area in the center of the band in which there are no actin myofilaments is called the H zone.
Hair
Hair refers to columns of dead keratinized epithelial cells.
Hemoglobin
Pigment of red blood cells responsible for the transport of oxygen is referred to as hemoglobin.
Hernia
Hernia refers to abnormal protrusion of an organ or a body part through the containing wall of its cavity.
Histamine
A substance released from stressed cells is called histamine.
Homeostasis
A state of equilibrium in which the internal environment of the body remains in the normal range is called homeostasis.
Hormone
A substance secreted by an endocrine gland that is transmitted in the blood or body fluids is referred to as a hormone.
Hormones
Hormones refer to steroidal or amino acid-based molecules released to the blood that act as chemical messengers to regulate specific body functions.
Hydrolysis
Splitting of a molecule into smaller portions by addition of a water molecule is called hydrolysis.
Hydroxyapatite
A type of crystalline calcium phosphate found in bone matrix is hydroxyapatite.
Hyperplasia
Hyperplasia refers to the growth of a tissue through cellular multiplication, not cellular enlargement. Compare with hypertrophy.
Hypertrophy
Enlargement of an organ or tissue is called hypertrophy.
I band
Area between the ends of two adjacent myosin myofilaments within a myofibril is an I band.
Ibuprofen
A nonopiate pain reliever that controls pain, fever, and inflammation is referred to as ibuprofen.
Ice
Ice refers to street name for dextromethamphetamine, a crystalline form of amphetamine that is smokable. It has slightly milder physical effects than methamphetamine hydrochloride but more severe mental effects.
Immune system
A population of cells, including leukocytes and macrophages, that occur in most organs of the body and protect against foreign organisms, some foreign chemicals, and cancerous or other aberrant host cells is called an immune system.
Immunity
Resistance to the effects of specific disease-causing agents is called immunity.
Impulse
A wave of depolarization conducted along a nerve fiber or muscle fiber is an impulse.
Independence
The condition in which one variable has no effect on another is referred to as independence.
Infection
The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues is called an infection.
Infectious disease
Infectious disease refers to an illness caused when a microorganism, such as a bacterium or a virus, invades the body, multiplies, and attacks a specific organ or organ system
Infertility
Inability to conceive after 12 months of trying is called infertility.
Inflammation
A tissue response to stress that is characterized by dilation of blood vessels and an accumulation of fluid in the affected region is called inflammation.
Ingestion
The taking of food or liquid into the body by way of the mouth is referred to as ingestion.
Innervation
The nerve supply to an organ is referred to as innervation.
Inorganic
Chemical substances that lack carbon and hydrogen are called inorganic.
Insertion
The end of a muscle attached to a movable part is referred to as insertion.
Insulin
A hormone secreted by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans that controls carbohydrate metabolism is referred to as insulin.
Integumentary system
An organ system consisting of the skin, cutaneous glands, hair, and nails is an integumentary system.
Intensity
Brightness is an intensity.
Intercalated discs
Cap junctions connecting muscle cells of the myocardium are referred to as intercalated discs.
Intracellular
Within cells, we have intracellular.
Intrinsic
Arising from within, such as intrinsic blood-clotting factors.
Involuntary
Involuntary refers to not consciously controlled.
Ion
A chemical particle with unequal numbers of electrons or protons and consequently a net negative or positive charge is an ion
Ion channels
Ion channels refers to gaps through the axon membrane.
Irritability
Ability to respond to stimuli is irritability.
Ischemia
Ischemia refers to a deficiency of blood in a body part.
Isometric contraction
Isometric contraction refers to muscular contraction in which the muscle does not shorten.
Isotonic
Condition in which a solution has the same concentration of dissolved particles as the solution with which it is compared is referred to as isotonic.
Isotonic contraction
Muscular contraction in which the muscle shortens is an isotonic contraction.
Kidney
One of the two organs that excrete urine is the kidney. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs approximately 11 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 3 cm thick.
Kinase
An enzyme that converts an inactive or precursor form of another enzyme to an active form by adding a phosphate group is referred to as a kinase.
Lactic acid
Lactic acid refers to an organic compound formed from pyruvic acid during anaerobic respiration.
Large fibers
Large fibers refer to nerve fibers in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord that regulate the pattern and intensity of pain sensations. They close the gate, decreasing the transmission of painful stimuli.
Latent period
Time between the application of a stimulus and the beginning of a response in a muscle fiber is referred to as the latent period.
Lateral
Pertaining to the side is called lateral.
Ligand
A chemical that binds reversibly to a receptor site on a protein, such as a neurotransmitter that binds to a membrane receptor or a substrate that binds to an enzyme is referred to as a ligand.
Liver
A large, dark red organ in the upper part of the abdomen on the right side that detoxifies blood, stores glycogen and fat-soluble vitamins, and synthesizes proteins is referred to as the liver.
Load
Load refers to pick up a gas for transport in the bloodstream. The resistance acted upon by a muscle.
Locomotion
Movement from one place to another is called locomotion.
Longitudinal
Oriented along the longest dimension of the body or an organ is called longitudinal.
Lower limb
Inferior appendage consisting of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot is called lower limb.
Lumen
Space within a tubular structure such as a blood vessel or intestine is called the lumen.
M line
Line in the center of the H zone made of delicate filaments that holds the myosin myofilaments in place in the sarcomere of muscle fibers is the M line.
Matrix
Matrix refers to the intercellular substance of connective tissue.
Maturation
The orderly unfolding of traits, as regulated by the genetic code is called maturation.
Maximal stimulus
Stimulus resulting in a local potential just large enough to produce the maximum frequency of action potentials is referred to as maximal stimulus.
Mechanical energy
The energy directly involved in moving matter is referred to as mechanical energy.
Membrane potential
Membrane potential refers to a voltage across the plasma membrane.
Mental
Pertaining to the mind is mental.
Mesoderm
Mesoderm refers to the middle primary germ layer.
Metabolic disorder
Metabolic disorder refers to any disorder in metabolism.
Metabolism
All of the chemical reactions in cells that use or release energy is metabolism.
Mitochondria
Cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation for cellular activities are referred to as mitochondria.
Mitochondrion
Organelle housing enzymes that catalyze reactions of aerobic respiration is mitochondrion.
Molecular level
Molecular level refers to in research, investigations of behavior at the physiological or biochemical level.
Molecule
A particle composed of two or more joined atoms is referred to as a molecule.
Motility
Motility refers to self-propulsion.
Motor end plate
Specialized portion of a muscle fiber membrane at a neuromuscular junction is the motor end plate.
Motor nerve
A nerve that consists of motor nerve fibers is a motor nerve.
Motor neuron
Motor neuron refers to a neuron that transmits impulses from the central nervous system to an effector.
Motor neurons
Neurons that communicate information from the nervous system to muscles and glands of the body are referred to as motor neurons.
Motor unit
A motor neuron and the muscle fibers associated with it is a motor unit.
Multiple motor unit summation
A sustained muscle contraction of increasing strength in response to input from many motor units is called multiple motor unit summation.
Muscle fiber
One muscle cell, especially of skeletal muscle is referred to as muscle fiber.
Muscle tension
The force exerted by a contracting muscle on some object is called muscle tension.
Muscle tissue
Muscle tissue is a type of tissue adapted to contract.
Muscle tone
The contraction of some fibers in skeletal muscle at any given time is called muscle tone.
Muscle twitch
Contraction of a whole muscle in response to a stimulus that causes an action potential in one or more muscle fibers is a muscle twitch.
Muscular dystrophy
A group of inherited muscle-destroying diseases is referred to as muscular dystrophy.
Muscular system
An organ system composed of the skeletal muscles, specialized mainly for maintaining postural support and producing movements of the bones is a muscular system.
Myoblast
Primitive multinucleated cell with the potential of developing into a muscle fiber is a myoblast.
Myoblasts
Embryonic mesoderm cells from which all muscle fiber develops are myoblasts.
Myofibril
Myofibril refers to contractile fibers within muscle cells.
Myofibrils
Myofibrils refers to a bundle of contractile fibers within a muscle cell.
Myofilament
A protein microfilament responsible for the contraction of a muscle cell composed mainly of myosin or actin is a myofilament.
Myoglobin
A pigmented compound in muscle tissue that stores oxygen is called myoglobin.
Myogram
A recording of a muscular contraction is referred to as a myogram.
Myosin
Myosin refers to a protein that, together with actin, produces muscular contraction and relaxation.
Nerve cell
A neuron is called a nerve cell.
Nerve fiber
A thin process of a neuron is a nerve fiber.
Nerve impulse
The electrochemical process of depolarization and repolarization along a nerve fiber is called the nerve impulse.
Nerves
Bundles of neuron fibers that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system are referred to as nerves.
Nervous system
An organ system composed of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia, specialized for rapid communication of information is a nervous system.
Network
A collection of radio or television stations that offer programs, usually simultaneously, throughout the country, during designated program times, is referred to as a network.
Neural
Referring to the nervous system is neural.
Neuromuscular junction
Point of contact between a nerve and muscle cell is called neuromuscular junction.
Neuron
A nerve cell that consists of a cell body and its processes is a neuron.
Neurons
Nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system are called neurons.
Neurotransmitter
Chemical secreted by the end of an axon that stimulates a muscle fiber to contract or a neuron to fire an impulse is referred to as a neurotransmitter.
Neurotransmitters
Chemical substances involved in the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another are neurotransmitters.
Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine refers to a neurotransmitter released from the axons of some nerve fibers.
Nucleus
A cellular organelle that is enclosed by a double-layered, porous membrane and contains DNA is a nucleus.
Nutrient
A chemical substance that must be supplied to the body from the environment is called a nutrient.
Nutrients
Nutrients refer to chemical substances taken in via the diet that are used for energy and cell building.
Organ
Organ refers to a structure consisting of a group of tissues that performs a specialized function.
Organelle
Organelle refers to any structure within a cell that carries out one of its metabolic roles, such as mitochondria, centrioles, endoplasmic reticulum, and the nucleus.
Organelles
A compartment, particle, or filament that performs specialized functions within a cell are referred to as organelles.
Organization
The structure discovered or imposed upon a set of items that is used to guide memory performance is an organization.
Origin
Origin refers to end of a muscle that is attached to a relatively immovable part.
Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis refers to a condition in which bones break easily because calcium is removed from them faster than it is replaced.
Overuse injuries
Overuse injuries refers to injuries that result from the cumulative effects of day-after-day stresses placed on tendons, muscles, and joints.
Oxidation
Process by which oxygen is combined with another chemical is called oxidation.
Oxidize
Oxidize refers to in the most basic sense, this means a chemical substance has either lost an electron or gained an oxygen. This change typically alters the shape and/or function of the substance.
Oxygen debt
The amount of oxygen that must be supplied following physical exercise to convert accumulated lactic acid to glucose is called an oxygen debt.
Pacemaker
Mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue that controls the rhythm of the heartbeat is referred to as a pacemaker.
Pain
The sensation that warns us that damage to our bodies is occurring is referred to as pain.
Pancreas
Pancreas refers to glandular organ in the abdominal cavity that secretes hormones and digestive enzymes.
Pathway
A metabolic progression of individual steps from starting materials to ending products is referred to as pathway.
Pelvic
Pelvic refers to pertaining to the pelvis.
Penis
Penis refers to an external reproductive organ of the male through which the urethra passes.
Perichondrium
Layer of fibrous connective tissue that encloses cartilaginous structures is a perichondrium.
Perimysium
Sheath of connective tissue that encloses a bundle of striated muscle fibers is referred to as perimysium.
Periosteum
Covering of fibrous connective tissue on the surface of a bone is called periosteum.
Peristalsis
Rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in the walls of certain tubular organs are called peristalsis.
Permeability
Permeability refers to that property of membranes that permits passage of molecules and ions.
Permeable
Open to passage or penetration is called permeable.
Personality
Personality refers to the pattern of enduring characteristics that differentiates a person, the patterns of behaviors that make each individual unique.
Phosphorylation
Phosphorylation refers to a metabolic process that adds a phosphate to an organic molecule.
Physical activity
In simplest terms, physical activity is moving about.
Physiology
The branch of science that studies body functions is referred to as physiology.
Plane
A flat surface is a plane. An imaginary surface formed by extension through any axis or two points.
Plasma membrane
The unit membrane that encloses a cell and controls the traffic of molecules in and out of the cell is the plasma membrane.
Polarized
Polarized refers to a state of a plasma membrane of an unstimulated neuron or muscle cell in which the inside of the cell is relatively negative in comparison to the outside
Polypeptide
Polypeptide refers to a compound formed by the union of many amino acid molecules.
Posterior
Toward the back is called posterior.
Potential
A difference in electrical charge from one point to another, especially on opposite sides of a plasma membrane is called potential.
Potential difference
Difference in electrical potential, measured as the charge difference across the plasma membrane, is referred to as the potential difference.
Potential energy
Energy in a chemical bond that is not being exerted or used to do work is potential energy.
Power
Power refers to the inverse of the probability of making a Type II error
Pregnancy
The condition in which a female has a developing offspring in her uterus is called pregnancy.
Pressure
Pressure refers to expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way.
Prevention
Primary prevention comprises efforts in community psychology to reduce the incidence of new cases of psychological disorder by such means as altering stressful living conditions and genetic counseling is prevention.
Prime mover
Muscle that is mainly responsible for a particular body movement is a prime mover.
Process
Process refers to projection on a bone.
Product
Something produced as the result of a chemical reaction is referred to as a product.
Proliferation
The process of nerve-cell division by mitosis is proliferation.
Protein
Nitrogen-containing organic compound composed of joined amino acid molecules is referred to as protein.
Proteins
Proteins refers to the essential constituents of nearly all body cells
Proximal
Closer to the midline or origin is referred to as proximal.
Puberty
Puberty refers to a stage of development in which the reproductive organs become functional.
Pulse
The surge of blood felt through the walls of arteries due to the contraction of the ventricles of the heart is the pulse.
Pupil
Opening in the iris through which light enters the eye is a pupil.
Pyruvic acid
Pyruvic acid refers to an intermediate product of carbohydrate oxidation.
Radiation
A form of energy that includes visible light, ultraviolet light, and X rays is referred to as radiation.
Receptor
Receptor refers to a structure, usually protein, at the distal end of a sensory dendrite that can be stimulated.
Receptor sites
Areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters or hormones are called receptor sites.
Receptors
Protein molecules on the dendrite or cell body of a neuron that will interact only with specific neurotransmitters are called receptors.
Recessive
In genetics, a gene that may not be expressed because of suppression by a contrasting dominant gene is referred to as recessive.
Recovery
The final step in drug treatment, following abstention, initial abstinence, and long-term abstinence in which clients have changed their style of living and have overcome their major physical and mental dependence on psychoactive drugs or addictive behavior is recovery.
Recruitment
Increase in the number of motor units activated as intensity of stimulation increases is referred to as recruitment.
Rectum
The terminal end of the digestive tube between the sigmoid colon and the anus is called the rectum.
Red blood cell
A disc-shaped cell, lacking a nucleus that is packed with the oxygen-carrying molecule hemoglobin is a red blood cell.
Reduction
Reduction refers to a chemical reaction in which electrons are gained.
Reflexes
Reflexes refers to automatic, involuntary responses to incoming stimuli.
Refractory period
Time period following stimulation during which a neuron or muscle fiber will not respond to a stimulus is called refractory period.
Regeneration
Regeneration refers to the replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue of the original type. Compare with with fibrosis.
Regulation
Regulation refers to the act of enforcing policies, rules, or laws. Reinforcing factor Any reward or punishment following or anticipated as a consequence of a behavior, serving to strengthen the motivation for or against the behavior.
Reinforce
To follow a response with a stimulus that increases the frequency of the response is called reinforce.
Repolarization
Returning the cell membrane potential to resting potential is referred to as repolarization.
Reproductive system
An organ system specialized for the production of offspring is referred to as a reproductive system.
Requirement
Requirement refers to the amount of a nutrient required by one person to maintain health. This varies between individuals. We do not know our individual requirements for each nutrient.
Resistance exercise
Resistance exercise refers to a physical exercise such as weight lifting that promotes muscle strength more than it promotes cardiopulmonary efficiency, endurance, or fatigue resistance. Compare with endurance exercise.
Respiration
Cellular process that releases energy from nutrients is called respiration.
Respiratory center
Respiratory center refers to a portion of the brain stem that controls the depth and rate of breathing.
Respiratory system
An organ system specialized for the intake of air and exchange of gases with the blood, consisting of the lungs and the air passages from the nose to the bronchi is referred to as the respiratory system.
Response
Response refers to the action resulting from a stimulus.
Resting membrane potential
The difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of an undisturbed nerve cell membrane is called resting membrane potential.
Resting potential
The electrical potential across the neural membrane when it is not responding to other neurons is referred to as resting potential.
Resting state
Resting state refers to the state in which there is a negative electrical charge of about 270 millivolts within the neuron.
Reticular
Relating to a fine network of cells or collagen fibers is called reticular.
Rigor mortis
Increased rigidity of muscle after death due to cross-bridge formation between actin and myosin as calcium ions leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is called rigor mortis.
Risk factors
Variables such as ethnicity and social class that are associated with the likelihood of problems but do not directly cause problems are called risk factors.
Rote
Rote refers to mechanical associative learning that is based on repetition.
Sarcolemma
Sarcolemma refers to the cell membrane of a muscle fiber.
Sarcomere
The structural and functional unit of a myofibril is called a sarcomere.
Sarcopenia
Sarcopenia refers to age-related loss of muscle mass.
Sarcoplasm
The cytoplasm within a muscle fiber is called sarcoplasm.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Sarcoplasmic reticulum refers to membranous network of channels and tubules within a muscle fiber, corresponding to the endoplasmic reticulum of other cells.
Scar
Scar refers to fibrous tissue replacing normal tissue.
Sciatic nerve
Sciatic nerve refers to tibial and common peroneal nerves bound together.
Secretion
Secretion refers to substance produced in and released from a gland cell.
Serum
The fluid portion of coagulated blood is serum.
Skeletal muscle
Type of muscle tissue found in muscles attached to bones is referred to as the skeletal muscle.
Skeletal muscles
Skeletal muscles refer to the muscles attached to bones, which produce externally observable movements of the body when contracted.
Skeletal system
An organ system consisting of the bones, ligaments, bone marrow, periosteum, articular cartilages, and other tissues associated with the bones is referred to as a skeletal system.
Sliding filament theory
Muscles contract when the thin and thick filaments move past each other, shortening the skeletal muscle cells is called the sliding filament theory.
Small intestine
Small intestine refers to a part of the digestive tract extending from the stomach to the cecum.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum refers to portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that does not contain ribosomes. This is the site of lipid synthesis in a cell.
Smooth muscle
Type of muscle tissue found in the walls of hollow visceral organs is referred to as the smooth muscle.
Somatic nervous system
Portion of the nervous system that controls skin and skeletal muscles is referred to as the somatic nervous system.
Speed
Street name for any amphetamine or methamphetamine is referred to as speed.
Sphincter
A circular muscle that closes an opening or the lumen of a tubular structure is referred to as a sphincter.
Spinal cord
Portion of the central nervous system extending downward from the brain stem through the vertebral canal is called the spinal cord.
Spinal nerves
The 31 nerve pairs that arise from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves.
Spindle
Spindle refers to an elongated structure that is thick in the middle and tapered at the ends A football-shaped complex of microtubules that guide the movement of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis.
Sprain
Ligaments reinforcing a joint that are stretched or torn is called a sprain.
Staircase effect
Staircase effect refers to a gradual increase in contractile strength of a muscle in response to repeated stimuli of the same intensity.
Steroid
A type of organic molecule including complex rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms is referred to as a steroid.
Steroids
Steroids refer to a group of chemical substances including certain hormones and cholesterol
Stimulus
A change in the environmental conditions that is followed by a response by an organism or cell is referred to as stimulus.
Stomach
Digestive organ located between the esophagus and the small intestine is the stomach.
Storage
Storage refers to maintenance of information over time. The second stage of information processing.
Strain
Strain refers to Mertonian anomie theory and to the many forms of response that one might have to the lack of fit between socially acceptable means and socially desirable goals.
Strength
Strength is the ability of a muscle to produce force, often represented by the one repetition maximum.
Stress hormones
Group of hormones including cortico steroids, that are involved in the body's physiological stress response is referred to as stress hormones.
Striated
Striated refers to striped.
Striated muscle
Striated muscle refers to muscles showing a striped pattern when viewed under the microscope. These stripes are due to presence and specific organization of the contractile proteins actin and myosin.
Stroke
The most common cause of damage to adult brains, arising when blockage of an artery cuts off the blood supply to a particular area of the brain or when a blood vessel bursts is referred to as stroke.
Structure
Structure refers to in developmental psychology, a substrate of the organism that develops, such as muscle, nervous tissue, or mental knowledge
Succession
The process by which a new category of people or type of land use gradually predominates in an area formerly dominated by another group or activity is a succession.
Summation
Phenomenon in which the degree of change in membrane potential is directly proportional to the intensity of stimulation is referred to as summation.
Superficial
Superficial refers to near the surface.
Synaptic cleft
Synaptic cleft refers to a narrow extracellular space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons.
Synaptic vesicles
Synaptic vesicles refer to small membranous sacs containing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Syncytium
A mass of merging cells is called syncytium.
Syndrome
A group of symptoms that characterize a disease condition is called a syndrome.
Synthesis
Synthesis refers to the process by which substances unite to form more complex substances.
System
A collection of organs that work together to perform an overall function is called a system.
T cells
T cells refers to lymphocytes produced in bone marrow, developed in the thymus gland, and operating in the cellular branch of the immune system. Some attack antigens directly while others help regulate the system.
T tubule
T tubule refers to a tubular extension of the plasma membrane of a muscle cell that conducts action potentials into the sarcoplasm and excites the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Tendon
A cordlike or bandlike mass of white fibrous connective tissue that connects a muscle to a bone is called a tendon.
Terminal cisterna
Terminal cisterna refers to an enlarged end of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the area of the T tubules.
Terminals
Small buttons at the end of nerve cells that release neurotransmitters are terminals.
Testes
Testes refer to male reproductive glands or gonads
Testosterone
Male sex hormone secreted by the interstitial cells of the testes is testosterone.
Tetanic contraction
Tetanic contraction refers to a sustained shortening and/or production of tension within a muscle, no relaxation.
Tetanus
A state of sustained muscle contraction produced by temporal summation as a normal part of contraction is referred to as tetanus.
Tics
Involuntary, repetitive, and nonrhythmic movements or vocalizations are called tics.
Tissue
A group of similar cells that performs a specialized function is referred to as tissue.
Titin
Protein that attaches myosin filaments to z lines is titin.
Token
In operant conditioning, a secondary reinforcer that can be saved and turned in later for another reinforcer is a token.
Tract
A collection of nerve fibers in the central nervous system having the same origin, termination, and function is called a tract.
Transdermal
A method of drug delivery where a drug-laden patch is adhered to the skin so it can be absorbed through the skin is called transdermal.
Treatment
In experiments, a condition received by subjects so that its effects may be observed is referred to as treatment.
Treppe
Series of successively stronger contractions that occur when a rested muscle fiber receives closely spaced stimuli of the same strength but with a sufficient stimulus interval to allow complete relaxation of the fiber between stimuli are called treppe.
Triad
Group of three things is a triad.
Triggers
Triggers refers to any object or action that activates craving in a recovering drug user, e.g., the sight of white powder, money, a syringe, an old drug-using partner.
Tropomyosin
Protein that blocks muscle contraction until calcium ions are present is referred to as tropomyosin.
Troponin
Troponin refers to protein that functions with tropomyosin to block muscle contraction until calcium ions are present.
Trunk
Trunk refers to that part of the body excluding the head, neck, and appendages. A major blood vessel, lymphatic vessel, or nerve that gives rise to smaller branches.
Twitch
A brief muscular contraction followed by relaxation is referred to as a twitch.
Urethra
Urethra refers to tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
Urinary bladder
Urinary bladder refers to a smooth, collapsible, muscular sac that stores urine temporarily.
Urinary system
An organ system specialized to filter the blood plasma, excrete waste products from it, and regulate the body's water, acid-base, and electrolyte balance is called a urinary system.
Urine
Wastes and excess water removed from the blood and excreted by the kidneys into the ureters to the urinary bladder and out of the body through the urethra are called urine.
Uterine
Uterine refers to pertaining to the uterus.
Uterus
Hollow muscular organ within the female pelvis in which a fetus develops is a uterus.
Value
An idea about what is socially defined as good or desirable is a value.
Varicosities
Knoblike swellings containing mitochondria and synaptic vesicles are varicosities.
Vascular
Pertaining to blood vessels is referred to as vascular.
Veins
Blood vessels that return blood toward the heart from the circulation are referred to as veins.
Visceral muscle
Single-unit smooth muscle found in the walls of blood vessels and the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts is the visceral muscle.
Visceral organs
A group of internal organs housed in the ventral body cavity are visceral organs.
Vitamin
An organic compound other than a carbohydrate, lipid, or protein that is needed for normal metabolism but that the body cannot synthesize in adequate amounts is called a vitamin.
Voluntarily
Intentionally is called voluntarily.
Voluntary muscle
Muscle that is usually under conscious control is referred to as a voluntary muscle.
Water
Water refers to the universal solvent of life
White blood cells
White blood cells refers to one of the formed elements of the circulating blood system