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79 Cards in this Set

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What are the three overlapping functions of the nervous system?
Sensory input, integration, motor output
What are the two major parts of the nervous system?
Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
What does the CNS consist of?
Brain and spinal cord
What does the PNS consist of?
The nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body.
What are the two functional subdivisions of the PNS?
The sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) divisions.
What are the two major components of the motor division of the PNS?
Somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system
Which component of the motor division of the PNS is under conscious control?
Somatic nervous system
Which component of the motor division of the PNS is under involuntary control?
Autonomic nervous system
What are the two major divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic division and parasympathetic division
What are the two principal cell types that make up all of the cellular space in the nervous system?
Nerves and Neuroglia (helper cells)
How much of the nervous system is extracellular space?
20%
What are the four types of neuroglia in the central nervous system?
1) Astrocytes
2) Microglia
3) Ependymal cells
4) Oligodendrocytes
Which glial cells (neuroglia) in the CNS are the most abundant and versatile? They support nerve structure, mop up leaked potassium ions, guide young neurons, and even communicate using calcium sparks.
Astrocytes
Which glial cells (neuroglia) in the CNS have thorny processes and monitor the health of neurons, transforming into macrophages when necessary?
Microglia
Which glial cells (neuroglia) in the CNS are often ciliated, range in shape from columnar to squamous, and assist with the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid?
Ependymal cells
Which glial cells (neuroglia) in the CNS line thicker nerve fibers and create myelin sheaths (and remember, myelinated nerves create white matter, unmyelinated nerves create gray matter)
Oligodendrocytes
What are the two types of neuroglia (glial cells, helper cells) found in the PNS?
Satellite cells, Schwann cells
Which type of neuroglia (glial cell) in the PNS creates the myelin sheaths that encompass most axons?
Schwann cells (neurolemmocytes)
Which type of the neuroglia (glial cell) in the PNS surround nerve cell bodies but have undetermined function?
Satellite cells
What three characteristics make neurons extremely unique?
1) Extreme longevity (one cell can live 100 years or more)
2) Extremely high metabolic rate (require tons of energy)
3) Amitotic (they don't divide)
What are two other names for a nerve cell body?
Soma (most common), Perikarion
Neurons have extremely effective and well developed protein- and membrane- making machinery. What two components make it up?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes
Neurons have extremely effective and well developed protein- and membrane- making machinery. What are two names given to this machinery?
Nissl bodies, chromatophillic substance
What type of organelle is conspicuously absent form a neuron?
Centriole
Microtubules and ______ create and maintain the structure of the cell body.
Neurofibrils
What two parts of the neuron generally compose the receptive region?
Axons, plasma membrane of soma
Most neuron cell bodies are contained in the ____.
CNS
Clusters of cell bodies inside the PNS are called ____.
Ganglia (singular: Ganglion)
Clusters of cell bodies inside the CNS are called ____/
Nuclei
Bundles of neurons are called _____ in the PNS.
Nerves
Bundles of neurons are called _____ in the CNS.
Tracts
What are the two types of neural processes?
Axons and dendrites
The PNS is composed mostly of neural _____.
Processes
What type of nerve process is short, tapering, branching, abundant and receptive?
Dendrite
What would you call the sharp, thorny process at the end of a dendrite that forms one side of a neural synapse?
Dendritic spine
What type of potential do dendrites generally receive?
Graded potential
How many axons does a neuron have?
1
What's a name for a long axon?
Nerve fiber
Axons may have occasional branches along their length called ___ ______.
Axon collaterals
At the end of an axon, there are generally up to 10,000 or more _____ ______, also known as ________.
Terminal branches, telodendria
There are three terms to describe the knoblike distal endings of an axon's terminal branches. What are they?
Axon terminals, synaptic knobs, or boutons (boo-TOHNZ)
What is the secretory part of a neuron?
Axon terminal (or synaptic knob, or bouton)
What are secreted at the axon terminals?
Neurotransmitters
What two organelles are absent in axons?
Nissl bodies (protein and membrane factories) and Golgi apparati
What is a term for the axon plasma membrane?
Axolemma
Is the system that transports resources to and from the axon a passive or an active transport system?
ATP is required... it's an active system involving a bunch of different motor proteins that transport new organelles to the axon and take away waste.
Movement toward the axon terminals is called _____ movement, and movement away is called _____.
Anterograde, retrograde
Many axons are covered with a whitish, protein-lipoid covering called a _____ ____.
Myelin sheath
Myelin sheaths _____ speed of action potential transmission.
Increase
The exposed portion is a Schwann cell is called _____.
Neurilemma
The gaps between Schwann cells are called _____.
Nodes of Ranvier, or neurobfibril nodes
Gray matter consists mostly of unmyelinated nerve fibers and ____.
Somas
What are the three structural classifications of neurons?
Multipolar (this is most neurons)
Bipolar (rare)
Unipolar (though really pseudounipolar)
What are the three functional classifications of neurons?
Sensory (afferent) neurons
Motor (efferent) neurons
Interneurons (association neurons)
What's another name for a nerve impulse?
Action potential
What's a term describing the electrical difference (measured in volts or millivolts) between two points?
Potential
What's a term for hindrance to electrical charge flow, induced by materials through which the charge must pass?
Restistance
Materials with high electrical resistance are called _____.
Insulators
Materials with low electrical resistance are called ______.
Conductors
What equation describes Ohm's Law?
I = V/R

I represents current
V represents voltage
R represents resistance
The body doesn't conduct charge using free electrons --- instead is uses ____.
Ions
The greater the ____, the greater the current.
Voltage
The greater the ____, the less current there is.
Resistance
Ion channels consist of:

A) Integral proteins
B) Enzymes
C) Several organelles
A) Integral proteins
An ion channel protein that changes shape, due to some stimulus, to accommodate or lock out ions is called a ____ _____.
Gated Channel
A gated channel that opens and closes when the appropriate chemical binds to it is called...
A ligand gated or chemically gated ion channel
An ion channel that changes its behavior based on changes in membrane potential is called...
a voltage gated channel
An ion channel that changes its behavior in response to physical deformation of the receptor is called...
a mechanically gated channel
What sort of ion channels are always open?
Leakage or Nongated channels
Every type of channel is selective as to the sort of ___ it lets past.
Ions
Ions move according to which two gradients?
Concentration gradient and electrical gradient.
What is the name for the 'all-encompassing gradient" that takes into account concentration and potential?
Electrochemical gradient
Generally speaking, what voltage represents a neuron's resting potential.
-40 to -90 mV
Regarding a resting neuron, where would you find the NEGATIVE charge; outside the plasma membrane, or inside?
Inside
What ion plays the most important part in generating membrane potential?
Potassium
In a resting cell, the cytosol has a lower concentration of ____ and a higher concentration of ____ than the extracellular fluid.
Na+, K+
The plasma membrane has leakage channels that allow for relatively free flow of ____ and ____ ions, but is much less permeable to ____ ions.
Potassium and chlorine, sodium
The ATP-driven "Sodium-Potassium Pump" ejects three ___ ions from the cell and then transports two ___ ions back into the cell
Sodium, Potassium
What exactly gives the cytosol its negative charge?
Anionic proteins