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54 Cards in this Set

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1. Cells contain smaller structures called ______ that carry out their metabolic functions.
Organelles
2. ____ was the first to produce a microscope capable of viewing a single cell.
Leeuwenhoek
Our thumbs are said to be ____ because we can cross our palms with them to touch our finger tips.
Opposable
4. ____ is the body’s tendency to maintain stable internal conditions.
Homeostasis
5. All chemical change in the body is collectively called _____
Metabolism
6. The study of structures that can be observed without magnification is called _____
Gross anatomy
7. A ____ is any chemical composed to two or more atoms bonded together whether the atoms are the same or different elements.
Molecule
8. The sex of a person from which a tissue is taken could be determined from the ____, a chart in which photographs of the chromosomes are arranged in the homologous pairs.
Karyotype
9. The opposite of dehydration synthesis is a/an ____reaction.
9) Hydrolysis
10. Any chemical that speeds up a reaction but is not consumed by it is called a/an ____
10) Catalyst
11. Whenever two or more substances are physically combined but do not chemically react with each other, they form a ____
Mixture
12. Compounds that ionize in water that produce a solution that will conduct electricity are called_____
Electrolytes
13. The formula for carboxyl group is____
COOH
14. A protein that functions as a biological catalyst is called a ____
Enzyme
15. T/F Fats are described as saturated is they have no double bonds between atoms.
True
16. T/F A dipeptide is a molecule with two peptide bonds
True
17. T/F When sodium ionizes in the presence of chlorine and becomes the sodium ion, Na+, the sodium is oxidized.
True
18. T/F In human physiology, a manganese and copper are trace elements, whereas sodium and iron are present in quantities too large to be classified as trace elements.
True
19. The plasma membrane is said to be ____ because it allows some substances to pass through but excludes others.
Selectively Permeable
20. ____ is a process of membrane transport that depends on the hydrostatic pressure exerted on fluid
Filtration
One difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport is that facilitated fusion moves substances down their ____, while active transport can move them up.
21) Concentration gradient
The plasma membrane is composed mainly of protein and ____ molecules.
Phospholipids
Anatomy is the study of?
Structure
Which of the following terms is defined as the study of structure by means of the cutting and separation of tissues test ?
dissection
Which of the following terms is defined as examining the body for signs of normalcy or disease by touching structures with the finger tips?
palpation
Which of the following terms is defined as examining the body for signs of normalcy or disease by listening to the natural sounds made by the body such as heart and lung sounds?
auscultation
Which of the following terms is defined as examining the body for signs of normalcy or disease by listening to a sound while tapping on the body?
percussion
Which of the following scientists were the first to describe blood flow as a continuous circuit around the body from the heart to the organs and back to the heart again?
Servetus and Harvey
The word "physiology" is derived from the word "physiologi" which was first used by this scientist when identifying diseases caused by natural phenomenon rather than those attributed to supernatural causes.
Aristotle
Which of the following terms is used to describe our ability to sense and react to a variety of stimuli?
responsiveness
In the hierarchy of organization of living things, which of the following is the simplest level at which we see all the basic functions of life?
cells
Which of the following scientists is the famous Italian physiologist who published the first atlas of anatomy, De Humani Corporis Fabrica in 1543?
Andreas Vesalius
In a feedback loop, which of the following components carries out the response necessary to restore homeostasis in an unbalanced system?
effector
Which type of feedback loop will result in a self-amplification response in the same direction, rather than lead to a corrective effect?
positive feedback loop
Which medical imaging technique is most useful for visualizing soft tissues?
magnetic resonance imaging
Which of the following medical imaging techniques is used to assess the metabolic state of tissue?
positron emission tomography
Which of the following methods of medical imaging uses sound wave reverberations to visualize internal organs?
sonography
Which level of organization of living things represents more than one cell type sharing a common function?
tissue
Complex, multicellular organisms usually consist of multiple
tissues.
organs.
organ systems
A person can be declared legally dead if he or she has
no brain waves for 24 hours.
Repair of the thumb is given the highest priority when repairing damage to the hand.
True
Color vision is a hallmark of primate evolution and adaptation.
True
Anatomical terms coined from the names of people are called nomina anatomica.
False
Which of the following scientists treated Roman gladiators and published a highly regarded medical textbook based on his observations and animal dissections?
Galen
Who is considered the father of modern medicine?
Hippocrates
Which of the following scientists was famous for having recorded his observations of "little anamacules" and is therefore one of the first scientists credited with having examined life at a microscopic level?
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Which of the following scientists improved the optics of the compound light microscope, added several controls, and was later the first to describe "cellulae" (little cells) when describing what he saw when looking at cork cells?
Robert Hooke
A law of nature describes in general the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave.
True
Scientists and lawyers use the word "theory" in the same way.
False
Carl Zeiss is one of the scientists credited with having improved the compound light microscope such that chromatic aberrations were significantly minimized.
TRUE
Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden are the two scientists credited with having been the first to conclude that all living things are composed of cells.
True
The philosophers credited with having invented new habits of scientific thought and therefore turning science into what is recognized today as a more objective and systematic approach to information research are:
Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes
The purpose of a hypothesis is to suggest a method for answering a specific question.
True
The main contribution of all the scientists and philosophers discussed in this first chapter was that they
helped replace superstition with an appreciation of natural laws.
were pioneers in establishing a scientific way of thinking.
bridged the chasm between mystery and medication.
Correct answer: All of the above are aspects of these people's contributions.