Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
air in the pleural cavity
How is pneumothorax caused?
Stab wound, or bursting of a little bulla of the lung that tears the visceral pleura.
If sealed which direction will heart move?
If lung full of fluid?
If partial consolidation occurs?
Sealed and/or lung full of fluid= mvt to the other side
Partial consolidation = to same side
imflammatory exudate within the pleural cavity & the pain is referred from the parietal pleura to the cutaneous distribution of the intercostal n.
accumulation of blood within the pleural cavity
What structures does the hilum consist of?
main bronchus, pulmonary a., 2 pulmonary vv., pulmonary n. plexus, lymph nodes
collection of lymph in the pleural cavityA
A patient presents with purse-string like constriction of the aorta at the region of the ductus arteriosus, there is retrograde mvt of blood into the aorta and due to the increased pressure in the ICA, notching is present on a radiograph. What has happened?
Aortic coarctation
3 main abnormalities in achalasia?
1. aperistalsis
2. partial or incomplete relaxation of LES-swallowing
3. increased resting tone of LES
primary achelasia
esophageal wall thicker than normal, increased LES level, squamous cell carcinoma develops in 5% of patients, most common complaint is dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), chest pain and regurgitation
secondary achelasia
Chagas disease: T. Cruzi, which results in destruction of esophageal myoenteric plexus
Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
linear & longitudinal esophageal tears at eosphageal junction
Causes of Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
Alcohol abuse, hiatal hernias
Symptoms of MW Syndrome
mucosal defect infection, upper GI bleeding
Barret Esophagus
distal squamous mucosa replaced by metaplastic columnar epithelium
Symptoms of Barret Esophagus?
heartburn & massive and increased reflux, adenocarcinoma 30-40 fold increase in development
cardiac or esophageal sphincter
What rib is the middle lobe assoc. w/?
4th rib
What is the inferior margin of the superior lobe called in the left lung
What is resultant from an enlarged heart?
A comprimised lung
What are the components of the diaphragm?
Musculotendinous sheet
Central tendon
Muscle fibers (vertebral: crura from bodies of the L1,2 (Lt.) and L1-3(Rt.)
Diaphragmatic hiatuses.
I 8, 10 Eggs, At 12.
IVC-T8 with Rt. phrenic n.
Esophagus-T10 w/ Anterior and Posterior vagus nn.
Aorta - T12 w/ azygous & thoracic duct
Septum Transversum
Wedge of mesoderm that folds from top of heart to below = parietal pleura. It is continuous with the pericardioperitoneal canals that are separated off so that the thorax is closed off from the abdomen.
Hernia of Bochdalek
Deficiency of the origin of the mm from the posterolateral rib cage allowing abdominal content to enter; occurs on Lt. side in 80-90% of cases.
What is the most common type of esophageal fistula?
Type C-Distal Tracheoesophageal fistula(85%)
Tracheoesophageal fistula symptoms
Distention of the stomach b/c of air entering
Starve to death b/c always have reflux
vomitting of blood
coughing up blood
Blood in feces
What side does phrenic n. paralysis occur on?
What is phrenic n. paralysis?
Interruption of phrenic n. due to malignancy
What are the symptoms of phrenic n. paralysis?
Dyspenea (difficult breathing, shortness of breath)
Sliding esophageal hiatus hernia
affects vagus, can cause Barret's esophagus
Paraesophageal hiatus hernia
Large herniated gastric fundus
I am caused by:
Esophageal tear
Epileptic seizures
What am I?
What problem can lead to Baretts Esophagus?
What is achelasia?
Smooth m. fails to maintain peristalsis & LES does not relax; causing reflux
Barett's esophagus?
Abnormal change (metaplasia) in the cells of the lower end of the esophagus thought to be caused by damage from chronic acid exposure, or reflux esophagitis.
Tetralogy of Fallot
Pulmonic stenosis
overriding aorta
Rt. ventricular hypertrophy