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25 Cards in this Set

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Which thoracic vertebrae are "typical" and which ones are similar to cervical and which ones to lumbar vertebrae?
T5-8 are typical
T1-4 are similar to cervical
T 9-12 are similar to lumbar
What articulation do thoracic vertebrae have that the others do not?
rib articulations
what are these? (3 types)
Inferior costal facet
Superior costal facet
Costal tubercle facet
What is the direction of thoracic Zygoapophyseal Joints on the thoracic vertebrae in relation to the MSP and MCP?
20 deg off of MCP and 70 deg off of MSP
so what projection would we use to see this part of the anatomy?
oblique 20 or 70 deg
What is the direction of thoracic intervertebral foramina in relation to the MSP?
90 degrees
so what projection would we use to see this part of the anatomy?
lateral
What is the "anode heel effect" and when would you use it?
It is used on a Thoracic spine projection to help even out the density since the lower part of the region is thicker than the upper. The cathode end of the tube puts out more x-rays so you would have that end facing down. Lateral is opposite
You have to do an AP thoracic spine projection on your next patient. What cassette do you put in the bucky, its orientation and location and what is the CR?
14 x 17 lengthwise centered on T7, top of cassette is 1 1/2" above shoulder, CR is perp to center of IR. Pt is supine with support under knees.
Why is the support important?
1. makes the patient more comfortable and 2. most importantly straightens out kyphotic curve of thoracic spine
Thoracic spine AP- pt position, IR size, location and orientation and CR?
14 x 17 lengthwise centered on T7, top of cassette is 1 1/2" above shoulder, CR is perp to center of IR
What should we see on a AP thoracic spine image?
see vertebrae from C7 to L1

How about lateral thoracic?
need to see intervertebral disk spaces
Oblique Thoracic spine- how do we position patient to see zagapoposeal joints closest to IR?
70 to 75 deg LAO or RAO, have pt put arm closest to bucky on top of bucky to help stablize pt

projections so see joints furthest away from IR?
RPO and LPO
What is the thoracic swimmers done for and how does it differ from cervical swimmers?
It is done to see T1-2 and is centered on T1-2. No difference from the cervical
What angle do we position the patient for a lumbar oblique and why?
45 deg as the zagapopaseal joints are 30-50 deg from MSP
what is spinal bifida?
an opening in the lamina of lumbar vertebra exposing the spinal column

what is spondylolisthesis?
a defect of the pars interarticularis that may look like a dislocation in the lumbar vertebrae
What is the advantages of doing the lumbar projection PA rather than AP?
1. the lordotic curve is facing the tube
2. more comfortable for the patient
3. intervertebral disks more parallel
4. decreased gonadal dose
On AP lumbar why is it important to have pt flex legs
to decrease lorditic curve of lumbar spine
Where do we center the cassette for a lumbar AP?
1 1/2" above Iliac crest - L3

what should we see on a good lumbar AP?
see from T12 to Sacrum
intervertebral disk space open
spineous processes centered
What is the lumbar axial L5-S1(spot) done for?
To see the lumbosacral junction.
(see SI joints as well in good image)

Pt and IR placement and CR for this projection?
8x10 lengthwise, centered at 1 1/2" above sym pubs or just below ASIS.
Pt supine with legs extended. CR is 30 deg cephalic (35-female) centered MSP and center IR
On regular lateral lumbar L5-S1 projection where do we center the CR?
@ spot 2" posterior and 1" superior to ASIS
how do we position pt and direct CR?
pt supine lateral with hips and knees flexed
CR is parallel if support used, otherwise 5-8 deg caudad
Lateral Lumbar projection, what is the CR placement and angle
Centered at L3 and 1 1/2" posterior to MCP, angled 5-8 deg caudad unless sponge is used
what do we strive to see in this projection?
open disk spaces and intervertebral foramina
What do we see in RPO lumbar oblique?
RIGHT zagapophyseal joints
and what angle is the pt positioned at?
45 deg
What do we see on a lumbar oblique image when it is done right?
you see a "scotty dog"
AP Axial Sacrum, CR location and angle?
with pt supine @ spot between ASIS and symphysis pubis and 15 deg cephalic
what do we see in this image?
SI joints and sacrum
CR center and angle for AP Coccyx?
2" above symphysis pubis and 10 deg caudad
Positioning for Lateral coccyx?
pt lateral with hips and knees flexed, body supported so long axis of spine is horizontal
what is centered on IR?
coccyx
Positioning and CR for lateral sacrum?
perp to level of ASIS and 3" posterior to MCP
When positioning for AP Coccyx what is important to remember when collimating?
collimate tightly widthwise