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490 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
Superior (cranial)
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
Inferior (caudal)
toward or at the front of the body; in front of
Ventral (anterior)
Toward or at the back of the body; behind
Dorsal (posterior)
toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Medial
away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
Lateral
between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Intermediate
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Proximal
farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Distal
toward or at the body surface
Superficial
away from the body surface; more internal
Deep (internal)
erect, feet forward, arms at side with palms facing forward, head facing forward, internationally know
Anatomical Position
allow us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another
Directional Terms
fundamental division of our body. Makes up the main axis of our body, includes the head, neck, and trunk.
Axial
fundamental division of our body. relating to the limbs and their attachments to the axis.
Appendicular
used to designate specific areas within major body divisions
Regional Terms
pertaining to the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
Abdominal
pertaining to the point of the shoulder
Acromial
pertaining to the forearm
Antebrachial
pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
Antecubital
pertaining to the armpit
Axillary
pertaining to the arm
Brachial
pertaining to the cheek
Buccal
Pertaining to the wrist
Carpal
pertaining to the head
Cephalic
pertaining to the neck region
Cervical
pertaining to the hip
Coxal
pertaining to the leg
Crural
pertaining to the fingers or toes
Digital
pertaining to the thigh
Femoral
pertaining to the side of the leg
Fibular (peroneal)
pertaining to the forehead
Frontal
pertaining to the great toe
Hallux
pertaining to the groin
Inguinal
pertaining to the breast
Mammary
pertaining to the hand
Manus
pertaining to the chin
Mental
pertaining to the nose
Nasal
pertaining to the mouth
Oral
pertaining to the eye socket (orbit)
Orbital
pertaining to the palm of the hand
Palmar
pertaining to the anterior knee (kneecap) region
Patellar
pertaining to the foot
Pedal
pertaining to the pelvis region
Pelvic
pertaining to the thumb
Pollex
pertaining to the genital region
Pubic
pertaining to the region of the breastbone
Sternal
pertaining to the ankle
Tarsal
pertaining to the chest
Thoracic
pertaining to the navel
Umbilical
pertaining to the point of the shoulder
Acromial
pertaining to the heel of the foot
Calcaneal
pertaining to the back
Dorsum
pertaining to the buttocks or rump
Gluteal
pertaining to the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
Lumbar
pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow
Occipital
pertaining to the ear
Otic
pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia
Perineal
pertaining to the sole of the foot
Plantar
pertaining to the back of the knee
Popliteal
pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
Sacral
pertaining to the scapula or shoulder blade area
Scapular
pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg
Sural
pertaining to the area of the spinal column
Vertebral
a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts
Sagittal
sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
Median Plane (midsagittal plane)
all other sagittal planes offset from the midline
Parasagittal Planes
like sagittal plane lie vertically, divide body into anterior and posterior parts
Frontal Planes (Coronal Plane)
runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
Transverse/Horizontal Plane
cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical planes
Oblique Sections
protects the fragile nervous system organs, has 2 subdivisions
Dorsal Body Cavity
in the skull, encases the brain
Cranial Cavity
runs within the bony vertebral column, encloses the delicate spinal cord
Vertebral Cavity (Spinal Cavity)
the more anterior and larger of the closed body cavities, has 2 major subdivisions, houses internal organs called Viscera
Ventral Body Cavity
surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest
Thoracic Cavity
lateral subdivision of Thoracic Cavity, enveloping a lung, and the Medial Mediastinum
Pleural Cavities
contains the pericardial cavity
Medial Mediastinum
encloses the heart and also surrounds the the remaining thoracic organs (esophagus, trachea, and others)
Pericardial Cavity
seperated from thoracic cavity by the diaphram, a dome shaped muscle important in breathing. Has abdominal and pelvic cavities
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver, and other organs
Abdominal Cavity
Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
Pelvic Cavity
the walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered by this thin double layered membrane
Serosa (Serous Membrane)
lines internal body walls
Parietal Serosa
covers the internal organs
Visceral Serosa
Divisions used primarily by medical personnel
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Nine divisions used primarily by anatomists
Abdominopelvic Regions
Each daughter cell resulting from mitotic cell division has exactly as many chromosomes as the parent cell.
TRUE
Apoptosis is programmed cell suicide, but cancer cells fail to undergo apoptosis.
TRUE
DNA contains "dark matter" that codes for specific structural proteins.
FALSE
Final preparation for cell division is made during the cell life cycle subphase called G2.
TRUE
Chromatin consists of DNA and RNA.
FALSE
In osmosis, movement of water occurs toward the solution with the lower solute concentration.
FALSE
The genetic information is coded in DNA by the regular alternation of sugar and phosphate molecules.
FALSE
A process by which large particles may be taken into the cell for food, protection of the body, or for disposing of old or dead cells is called phagocytosis.
TRUE
The orderly sequence of the phases of mitosis is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
TRUE
Diffusion is always from areas of greater to areas of lesser concentration.
TRUE
Facilitated diffusion always requires a carrier protein.
FALSE
DNA transcription is another word for DNA replication.
FALSE
The glycocalyx is often referred to as the "cell coat," which is somewhat fuzzy and sticky with numerous cholesterol chains sticking out from the surface of the cell membrane.
FALSE
In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential ranging from -50 to about +50 millivolts.
FALSE
Microfilaments are thin strands of the contractile protein myosin.
FALSE
Interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material.
TRUE
The cell (plasma) membrane normally contains substantial amounts of cholesterol.
TRUE
Aquaporins are believed to be present in red blood cells and kidney tubules, but very few other cells in the body.
FALSE
Most organelles are bounded by a membrane that is quite different in structure from the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane.
FALSE
Only one cell type in the human body has a flagellum.
TRUE
Microtubules are hollow tubes made of subunits of the protein tubulin.
TRUE
Telomeres are the regions of chromosomes that code for the protein ubiquitin.
FALSE
Nitric oxide may act as a biological messenger.
TRUE
Nucleus
Control Center
Nuclear Envelope
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell consisting of pores and nucleoplasm
Nucleoli
dark-staining organelles that synthesize RNA
Chromatin
long strands of DNA
Chromosome
a doubled rod of condensed chromatin
Plasma Membrane
a phospholipid bilayer with proteins that surrounds a cell and serves as a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
Microvilli
Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption
Tight Junction
Junction between cells when adjacent plasma membrane proteins join to form an impermeable barrier
Desmosome
A strong cell-to-cell junction that attaches adjacent cells to one another.
Gap Junction
a channel or tunnel between adjacent tissue cells through which water and other small molecules pass freely
Cytoplasm
The region of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus
Cytosol
the semifluid or water portion of the cytoplasm
Organelle
a specialized part of a cell
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
Ribosome
An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins
Bound Ribosomes
ribosomes made of proteins for export
Free Ribosomes
Ribosomes kept in the Cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum
small network of fluid filled tubes inside a cell that substances move along
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
no attached ribosomes; three main functions: intracellular transport, lipid synthesis, drug and alcohol detoxification
Golgi Apparatus
cell organelle that recieves, stores, modifies, and package proteins to be transported out of the cell
Lysosome
a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
Cytoskeleton
network of proteins in the cytoplasm that help cell maintain its shape or framework anchors organelles and helps with cellular movement
Cilia
short, hair-like structures made of microtubules that enable movement of cells or movement of materials outside a cell
Flagella
whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement
Passive Transport
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
Diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
Equilibrium
equal parts of concentration
Osmosis
diffusion of water
Tonicity
The ability of a solution to cause a cell within it to gain or lose water.
Isotonic Solution
a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
Hypotonic Solution
concentration of substances is lower outside of the cell than inside the cell causing water to flow in
Hypertonic Solution
a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell causing water to flow out
Facilitated Diffusion
the diffusion of molecules across a membrane through carrier proteins
Active Transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
Solute Pumping
Active transport that uses ATP to energize carrier proteins
Bulk Transport
transport of large molecules through use of vesicles
Exocytosis
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
Endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
Interphase
cell growth phase where a cell increases in size, carries on metabolism, and duplicates chromosomes prior to division
Mitosis
division of the nucleus
Prophase
stage of mitosis during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes and spindle fibers form from the pole and attach to parts of the nucleus
Metaphase
phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase
phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles.
Telophase
phase where the nuclear envelope reforms, chromsomes relax and turn back into chromatin and spindle fibers break down
Cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm during telophase
Cleavage Furrow
the area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell during cytokinesis
Types of tissues
Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, Skeletal
Function Of Epithelial Tissues
to line cavities or cover surfaces
Characteristic of Epithelial Tissues
closely packed together, continous sheets/layers, free or apical surface one edge, avascular, have a nerve supply, have a high capacity ofr renewal or go through mitosis rapidly
Functions of Epithelial tissues
Protection, Filtration, Lubrication, secretion, digestion, absorption, transportation, excretion, sensory reception, reproduction
Layers of Epithelial Tissues
Simple, stratified, Pseudostratified
Simple Epithelial Tissues
one layer of epithelial cells
Stratified Epithelial Tissues
more than one layer of epithelial cells
Pseudostratified Epithelial Tissues
one layer looks like 2 layers
Shapes of Epithelial Tissues
Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar, Transitional
Squamous
Flat and thin Epithelial Tissues
Cuboidal
Cubelike Epithelial Tissues
Columnar
Elongated Epithelial Tissues
Transitional
capable of stretching, no set shape epithelial tissue
Tissues
group of cells that perform a function
Apical Surface
an upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an internal organ
Basal Surface
The bottom layer of epithelial tissue that attaches to the basement membrane
Glandular Epithelium
composed of cells that are specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids
Gland
one cell or a group of cells that secrete substances into ducts or on top of surface
Two Types of glands
Exocrine and Endocrine
Exocrine Glands
secrete into ducts or tubes, ex. perspiration, oil into skin, sweat glands
Endocrine Glands
secrete hormones onto cell surfaces diffuses into blood and carried through body, ex. pituitary and thyroid
Structure classifications
unicellular and multicellular
Unicellular
mucus cell, goblet cell one cell
Multicellular
salivary gland, sweat glands, more than one cell
Functional Classifications of glandular epithelium
holocrine, merocrine, and apocrine glands
Holocrine Glands
product is released upon cell death ex. sebaceous glands
Sebaceous Glands
sebum gland
Sebum
Oil
Merocrine Glands
glands where product is discharged as its being produced, ex. salivary glands
Apocrine glands
glands that secretes product by exocytosis or pinches off into vessicles, ex. mammary glands
Exocytosis
movement of a substance by a vesicle to the outside of a cell
Connective Tissue functions
supports and protects body organs, bends organs together, stores energy reserves, some provide immunity
Immunity
(medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease
Three Basic Elements of connective tissue
Cells, Ground Substance, Fibers
Cells, Ground Substance, and Fibers
The matrix consists of
Characteristics of connective tissues
cells rarely touch each other, rarely have an apical surface, have a nerve supply, highly vascular
Matrix of Connective tissue
can be liquid solid and/ or gel
Liquid Matrix of connective tissue
blood
Solid Matrix of connective tissue
bone
Gel Matrix of connective tissue
cartilage
Fibers of connective tissue
Collagen, elastic, reticular
Collagen Fibers
strong fibers, ex. ligaments and tendons
Elastic fibers
can be stretched, ex. ears
Reticular fibers
hold together and provide shape fibers, fibers coated with collagen, ex. spleen
Classifications of Connective tissues
Embryonic, Mature
Types of embryonic connective tissues
Mesenchyme and mucus
Mesenchyme
connective tissue in embryo and in adultsduring wound healing
Mucus
connective tissue that hold umbilical cord
Types of Mature Connective Tissue
Loose, Dense, Cartilage, Bone, and Blood
Three types of Loose Connective Tissue
Areolar, Adipose, Reticular
Loose Connective Tissue
Connective tissue that are not well arranged
Dense Mature Connective Tissue
well organized connective Tissue
Two Types Of Dense Connective Tissue
Dense Regular, Dense Irregular, and elastic
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
white or silvery ex. tendons
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
sheets of connective tissue ex. facia
Three types of cartilage
Hyaline Cartilage, Fibrocartilage, Elastic cartilage
Chondrocytes
produce cartilage
Hyaline Cartilage
cartilage at the ends of bones
Fibrocartilage
strongest cartilage located where boned do not move, ex. sutures
Elastic Cartilage
cartilage in the ears
Bone
Osseous Tissue
Osteoblasts
cells that make bones, eventually mature into osteocytes
Osteocytes
mature osteoblasts
Blood
vascular tissue, ex. red blood cells, White blood cells, platelets etc.
Muscle tissue
long cells that look like fiber
Three types of Muscle tissue
Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
voluntary, striated, multinucleated, nuclei
Nuclei in Skeletal muscle tissue
is at the side of the cell
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
involuntary, striated, has a central nucleus, cells are arranged end to end, autorhythmic
Autorhythmicity
can self contract
Intercalated discs
attachment point of cell, end to end
Smooth muscle
involuntary, non-striated, central nucleus, contract together
two types of cells in Nerve tissues
neurons and neurogli or glial cells
Neurons
cells that converts stimuli into a nerve action potential or NAP, sends NAP to other cells
Neuroglia
glial cells
Neuroglia
produce neurotransmitters, phagocytic, produce myelin, produce cerebrospinal fluid, regulates ion balance
Neurotransmitters
chemicals that carry NAP from one cell to another
Phagocytic
the process by which cells surround and digest certain particles
Myelin
coats neurons and insulates
Parenchyma
main tissue type
Anatomy of Integumentary system
Epidermis, Dermis, subcutaneous or hypodermis
Epidermis
upper layer of tissue, stratified squamous
Stratum Corneum
25-30 cells thick of dead keratinized epithelial cells, gives protection
Statum Lucidum
3-5 cells thick, in skin w/o hair, ex. palms of hand and sole of feet, dead keratinized cells
Stratum Granulosum
3-5 cells thick, dying cells, have granules
Stratum Spinosum
8-10 cells thick, dying cells, pointed
Stratum Basale
1 cell thick, Living cells, skin stem cells
Keratinocytes
make brown pigment
Malanocytes
secrete melanin when struck by UV light
Dermis
connective tissue, site of hair follicle, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, arrector pilli, nerve endings/receptors, and blood vessels
Two regions of Dermis
Papillary region and reticular region
Subcutaneous
adipose tissue of skin
Physiology of Integumentary System
Regulates bopdy temperature, protects, sensation, excretion, dehydration prevention, Immunity, is a blood reservoir, synthesis of vitamin D
Rgulating body temperature
changing blood flow, sweating, goosebumps
Changing blood flow
blood sends heat to skin releasing heat, increasing blood flow releases more heat
Sweating
contains hear, evaporates, lets heat out
Goosebumps
creates friction, arrector pilli pulls hair back and forth
Protection
H2O light, germ proof, from UV light
UV light
damages DNA
Color
Carotene, melanin, and hemoglobin
Carotene
orange tint
Melanin
brown color
Hemoglobin
red color
Jaundice
yellow, affected by the liver
Liver
kills bilirubin
Bilirubin
waste product when hemoglobin breaks down
Erythema
reddening of skin
Cyanosis
blueness of skin
Bronze
caused by addisn's disease
Hair anatomy
shaft, bulb, root, follicle, papilla
Shaft of hair
part of hair projecting from the skin
Bulb of hair
part at base of follicle
Root of hair
This is the portion of the hair that reaches from the center of the follicle down to the bulb.
Follicle
Structure in the dermis of the skin from which a strand of hair grows.
Papilla
encapsuled area where hair grows
Three concentric rings of Hair
Medulla, Cortex, Cuticle
Medulla
innermost rings, has pigments from melanocytes
Cortex
second ring, has some pigments
Cuticle
outermost ring
Sebaceous glands
produces sebum
Sebum
oil
Anatomy of nail
Free edge, body, lunula, eponychism, root, matrix, dead keratinized epithelia cells
Free edge of nail
part of nail that gets cut off
Lunula
the white crescent-shaped area at the base of the human fingernail
Eponychium
The living skin at the base of the nail plate covering the matrix area, cuticle
Root of the nail
part of nail that lies in a groove and is hidden by cuticle
Matrix of the nail
where nail production occurs
First Degree burn or frostbite
damages only surface of epidermis
Second degree burn or frostbite
destroys all of epidermis and part of epidermis, blister
Third degree burn or frostbite
all epidermis or dermis and maybe underlying tissue, scarring
Abrasion
scraping away of the epidermis
Step of abrasion healing
Clot, basal cells migrate laterally then upward, scab falls off
Steps of Deep wound healing
Inflammatory phase, Migratory phase, Proliferative phase, Maturation phase
Inflammatory Phase
clotting and blood vessels grow
Migratory phase
basal cells and fibroblasts migrate
Proliferative phase
epidermis production collagen fibers grow in blood clot
Maturation phase
everything organizes
Tissues
a group of cells that perform a function
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue
continous sheets/layers, lines cavities or covers organs, closely packed together, have a nerve supply, avascular, have an apical and basal surface, have a high capacity for renewal, go through mitosis rapidly
Functions of Epithelial tissue
protection, filtration, absorption, digestion, secretion, lubrication, transportation, reproduction, sensory reception, excretion
Three kinds of layers of the epithelial tissue
SImple, stratified, pseudostratified
Apical Surface
free surface or one open surface
Basal Surface
connected surface
Avascular
no direct blood supply
Simple Epithelial Tissue
one layer of epithelial cells
Stratified Epithelial Tissue
more than one layer of epithelial cells
Pseudostratified Epithelial Tissue
one layer of Epithelial Tissue that looks like two, look slike nucleus over nucleus
Four Shapes of Epithelial Tissue
Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar, Transitional
Squamous Epithelial Tissue
flat and thin epithelial tissue
Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue
square like epithelial tissue
Columnar Epithelial Tissue
elongated epithelial tissue
Transitional Epithelial Tissue
capable of strecthing, no set shape epithelial tissue
Gland
one cell or a group of cells that secrete substances into ducts or on top of surfaces
Two Type of Glandular Epithelium
Endocrine and Exocrine glands
Exocrine Glands
secrete their product onto body surfaces or into body cavities, ex. mucous, sweat, oil, salivary glands, liver, pancreas
Endocrine Glands
secrete hormones into cell surfaces, diffuses into the blood carrying through the body to specific organs ex. pituitary and thyroid glands
Two Structural Classifications of Glandular Epithelium
unicellular and multicellular
Three Functional Classifications of Glandular Epithelium
Holocrine, Merocrine, Apocrine
Holocrine
product is released upon death ex. sebaceous gland
Merocrine
product is released as it is produced ex. salivary gland
Apocrine
secrete product by pinching it off into a vessicle ex. mammary gland
Sebaceous gland
releases sebum
Sebum
oil
Exocytosis
pinching off into vessicles
Characteristics of Connective Tissue
cells rarely touch each other, cells raely have an apical surface, have a nerve supply, highly vascular, largely extracellular matrix
Matrix is composed of what
solid, liquid gel
Functions of Connective Tissue
Supports and protects body organs, binds organs together, stores energy reserves, some provide immunity
Three basic element of Connective Tissue
Cell, Ground substance, and Fibers
Three types of fibers in Connective Tissue
Collagen, Elastic, Reticular
Collagen Fibers
strong fibers found in connective tissue ex. ligaments and tendons
Elastic fibers
fibers that can be stretched in connective tissue ex. ear
Reticular Fibers
fibers that hold together or provide a shape, coated with collagen in connective tissue ex. spleen
Two main classification of connective tissue
Embryonic and mature connective tissues
Two Types of Embryonic Tissues
Mesenchyme and Mucus
Mesenchyme
found in embryo and adults in wound healing
Mucus embryonic tissue
hold umbilical cord
Five Types of Mature Connective Tissue
Loose, Dense, Cartilage, Bone, Blood
Loose Connective Tissue
not well organized connective tissue
Three types of loose connective tissue
areolar, adipose, reticular
Areolar
loose connective tissue in the dermis/ forms the subcutaneous layer
Adipose
loose connective tissue composed of fat
Reticular Loose Connective Tissue
Loose connective tissue in the spleen
Dense Connective Tissue
well arranged mature connective tissue
Three types of Dense Connective Tissue
Regular, irregular, elastic
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
white, silvery tough, connective tissue ex. tendons
Dense Irregular Connective TIssue
thick sheets irregularly arranged connective tissue es. facia
Chondrocytes
produce cartilage
Three Types of cartilage
Hyaline, fibro-, elastic
Hyaline Cartilage
cartilage at the end of bones
Fibrocartilage
cartilage attached to bones that do not move ex. sutures
Elastic Cartilage
cartilage that can bend and stretch ex. ears
Bone
Osseous Connective Tissue
Osteoblasts
cells that make bone
Osteocytes
mature osteoblasts or bone cells
Blood
vascular tissue
Muscle tissue
long cells that look like fibers
Three types of muscle tissues
Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth
Skeletal Muscle TIssue
voluntary, striated, multinucleated, nuclei at the side of the cell
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
involuntary, striated, single nucleus in the center of the cell, arranged end to end, can self contract
Intercalated Discs
attachment point of cells end to end
Autorhythmicity
self contraction
Smooth Muscle Tissue
involuntary, not striated, single mucleus in the center of the cell, contracts together
Two Types of cells in the nervous tissue
Neuron and Neuroglia or glial cell
Neuron
cells that convert stimuli into nerve action potential and ends to other cells
Neuroglia
cells that produce neurotransmitters, phagocytic, produces myelin, produces cerebrospinal fluid, regulates ion flow
Neurotransmitters
chemicals that carry NAP from one cell to another
Phagocytic
the process by which cells surround and digest certain particles
Myelin
coats and insulated neurons
Parenchyma
main tissue type, functional tissue of an organ
Come Loosen Great Sun Burn Patches Real Soon
CLGSBPRS
Three main layers of the integumentary system
Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous
Epidermis
top layer of skin, stratified squamous
Five Layers of the Epidermis
Stratum Corneum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Basale
Stratum Corneum
25-30 cells thick, gives protection, dead keratinized epithelial cells
Stratum Lucidum
3-5 cells thick, found in the skin with no hair, ex. palms and soles of feet, dead keratinized epithelial cells
Stratum Granulosum
3-5 cells thick, dying epithelail cells, has granules
Stratum Spinosum
8-10 cells thick, pointed, dying epithelial cells
Stratum Basale
1 cell thick, living epithelial cells, skin stem cell, have keratinocytes and melanocytes
Keratinocytes
secrete brown pigment
Melanocytes
Secrete melanin when struck by UV light
Dermis
contains fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes, areolar connective tissue, site of hair follicle, sebaceous gland, sweat gland, arrector pili, nerve endings/receptors, and blood vessels
Fibroblasts
Spindle shaped cells that form connective tissue
Two Regions of dermis
Papillary and Reticular layer
CLGSBPRS of skin
Corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, basale, papillary, reticular, subcutaneous
Subcutaneous Region or layer
adipose tissue layer or region
Eight Functions of Integumentary System
Regulates Body Temp, protection, sensation, excretion, prevents dehydration, immunity, blood reservoir, begins synthesis of vitamin d in response to UV light
Regulation of Body Temperature
changes blood flow, blood send heat to skin releasing it, increasing blood flow relases more heat reducing temperature
Sweating
heat in liquid which evaporates and lets heat out
Goosebumps and Shivering
arrector pili pulls hair follicle making them stand up and pulls follicles back and forth creating friction
Integumentary System Protection
H2O tight, germ proof, against UV light
Carotene
make orange tint
Melanin
make brown tint
Hemoglobin
makes red tint
Jaundice
causes a yellow discoloration
Bilirubin
Waste product of hemoglobin after it has been broken down
Bilirubin
Liver kills this
Hemoglobin die
every 125 days
Erythema
reddening of the skin
Cyanosis
blueness of the skin from deoxyhemoglobin
Addison's disease
causes bronze tint
Ten Parts of the hair
shaft, follicle,papilla, root, bulb, medulla, cortex, cuticle, sebaceous gland, arrector pili
Shaft of hair
visible portion of the hair
Bulb of hair
large circular part at the base of the hair
Root
the portion of a hair that penetrates into the dermis and sometimes the subcutaneous layer
Follicle
outer space where hair is growing
Papilla
structure within follicle which is a small projection at bulb; provides blood supply
Three Concentric rings in a cross section of a hair
Medulla, Cortex, and Cuticle
Medulla of hair
innermost ring of the hair containing pigments from melanocytes
Cortex of hair
middle ring of hair, may contain some pigment
Cuticle of hair
outermost ring of hair
Six parts of nail
free edge, body, eponychium, lunule, root, matrix
Free Edge
end of nail that gets cut
Body of nail
main part of the nail
Eponychium
skin piece that seals the nail and proximal skin fold
Lunule
white crescent shaped part at the beginning of the visible nail
Matrix of nail
where nail production occurs
First Degree burn or frostbite
damages the surface of the epidermis
Second degree burn or frostbite
damages all of the epidermis and the upper part of the dermis
Third degree burn or frostbite
damages all of the epidermis, dermis, and possibly some of the underlying layer
Three steps of abrasion wound healing
blood clots, basal cells migrate laterally then upward, scab falls off
Four phase in deep wound healing
Inflammatory phase, Migratory phase, proliferative phase, and maturation phase
Inflammatory phase
blood clots form, blood vessels grow
Migratory phase
basal cells and fibroblasts migrate
proliferative phase
epidermis produces collagen fibers in the clot
Maturation phase
everything organizes
The apocrine sweat glands are fairly unimportant in thermoregulation.
TRUE
Skin surface markings that reflect points of tight dermal attachment to underlying tissues are called epidermal ridges.
FALSE
The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the dermis.
TRUE
The outermost sheath of a hair follicle is the connective tissue root sheath.
TRUE
The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen.
FALSE
Joe just burned himself on a hot pot. A blister forms and the burn is painful. Joe's burn would best be described as a third-degree burn.
FALSE
Destruction of the matrix of the hair bulb would result in its inability to produce oil.
FALSE
The hyponychium is commonly called the cuticle.
FALSE
The reason that the nail bed appears pink is the presence of a large number of melanocytes in the underlying dermis.
FALSE
During the resting phase of hair growth, the matrix is inactive and the follicle atrophies.
TRUE
The most dangerous skin cancer is cancer of the melanocytes.
TRUE
The skin is not able to receive stimuli because the cells of the epidermis are not living and therefore there are no sensory receptors in the skin.
FALSE
The dermis is rich in blood vessels and nerve fibers.
TRUE
The hypodermis is composed of adipose and dense connective tissue.
FALSE
A physician is often able to detect homeostatic imbalances in the body by observing changes in the skin color.
TRUE
When an individual is exposed to extremely low air temperatures, the dermal blood vessels will dilate so that blood and heat will be dissipated.
FALSE
Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes.
TRUE
Ceruminous glands are modified merocrine glands.
FALSE
The stratum corneum (outermost layer of skin) is a zone of approximately four layers of viable cells that are able to synthesize proteins that keep the outer layer of skin smooth and soft.
FALSE
The dermis has a connective tissue and adipose layer that loosely binds the body together.
FALSE
Incisions should be made across rather than parallel to cleavage lines produced by collagen fiber bundles.
FALSE
The pinkish hue of individuals with fair skin is the result of the crimson color of oxygenated hemoglobin (contained in red blood cells) circulating in the dermal capillaries and reflecting through the epidermis.
TRUE
Hair growth and density are influenced by hormones, nutrition, and, in some cases, lifestyle.
TRUE
When a patient is said to have "third-degree burns," this indicates that the patient has burns that cover approximately one-third of the body.
FALSE
Sweat glands continuously produce small amounts of sweat, even in cooler temperatures.
TRUE
Three types of skeletal cartilage
Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage
Hyaline Cartilage
the most common type. contains only very fine collagen fibers. the matrix has a glassy trranslucent appearance. found in the nose and at the end of long bones and the ribs, froms rings in the walls of respiratory passages. the fetal skeleton is made up of this type of cartilage, later it is replaced by bone.
Elastic Cartilage
much more flexible than hyaline cartilage and tolerates repeated bending better w/ more elastic fibers (cartilages of external ear and the epiglottis)
Fibrocartilage
Type of cartilage that contains both chondrocytes and collagen; used for fusion & support and found in the knees and intervertebral disks of the back
Number of bones
206
Two classifications of bones
axial and appendicular
Axial Skeleton
forms the long axis of the body, includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column and rib cage
Appendicular skeleton
consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles
Types of bones
flat bones, long bones, irregular bones
Long bones
bones are longer than they are wide all limb bones excpet the patella, wrist and ankle bones
Short bones
roughly cube shaped, nbones of the wrist and ankle
Sesamoid bones
special type of short bone that form in a tendon ex. patella
Flat bones
thin flattened and a bit curved bones ex. sternum, scapula, ribs, and most skull bones
Irregular bones
bones that have complicated shapes that fit no other classification ex. vertebrae and hip bones
functions of bones
support, protection, movement,mineral and growth factor starge, blood cell formation, fat storage,energy storage
Hematopoiesis
formation of blood cells
Bone textures
spongy and compact bone
Compact Bone
external layer of bone
Spongy Bone
internal layer of bone also called cancellous bone
Trabeculae
honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces
Structures of long bone
Diaphysis, epiphysis, membranes
Diaphysis
shaft forming the long axis of the bone
Epiphysis
the bone ends of a long bone
Epiphyseal line
between the epiphysis and the diaphysisof an adult long bone
epiphyseal plate
a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone
Periosteum
a white double layered membrane covering the external surface of the entire bone
Osteoblasts
bone forming cells which secrete bone matrix
Osteoclasts
bone destroying cells
Endosteum
delicate connective tissue covering the internal bone surfaces
Osteon
the structural unit of compact bone, an elongated cylinder located parallel to the long axis of the bone, tiny weight bearing pillars
lamella
a hollow tube of the osteon filled with red bone marrow
central canal
inner hole of the osteon holding the nerve vein and artery
perforating canals
canal lying at right angles to the long axis of the bone connecting the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to eh central canls and medullary cavity
Lacunae
small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes
Canaliculi
hairlike canals connecting the lacunae to each other and the central canal
Ossification
the process of bone formation
joints
articulations
Chondrocytes
form cartilage
perforating canal
have blood vessels that carry blood to haversion canals
Trabeculla
pattern of lamella in cancellous bone
Yellow bone marrow
fat or adipose tissue
Intramembranous ossification
the formation of the skull and the clavicle (flat bones) 1. mesenchyme layed down in the shape of the bone 2. mesenchyme get replaced with loose connective tissue 3. osteoblasts move in and turn into bone 4. osteoclasts move in and turn into cancellous bone
Steps of endochondral ossification
osteoblasts and bone collar forms, cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and then develops cavities, the peristeal bud invades the internal cavities and spongy bone begins to form, the dipahysis elongates and a medullary ciavity forms as ossification continues, secondary ossification begins in the epiphysis, the eiphiphysis ossifies when completed cartilage remainsin the epiphysela plates and articular cartilage
Repair of fractures
1. clot forms 2. fibrocartilagenous callous forms wherever their is blood 3. bony callous forms 4. bone remodels by osteoclasts breaking down extra bone