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34 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 main elements
of each cell?
Cell membrane, cytoplasm, and organelles
Cell membrane
Is the outer covering that encircles and protects the cell. It allows certain substances to pass from one side to another, but does not allow others.
What are the vital functions of the cell membrane?
Electrolyte and fluid balance and transfer of enzymes,hormones, and nutriens into and out of the cell.
Cytoplasm
Viscous fluid that fills and shaped the cell.
The clear portion of a Cytoplasm is called?
Cytosol
What substances do cytoplasms dissolve?
Electrolytes, proteins, glucose, and lipids.
What are the 6 most important Organelles?
Nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, gogli apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, and peroxisomes.
What does the nucleus contain?
DNA
DNA must constantly be what?
Copied and transferred to the cells.
What 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum are there?
Rough and smooth.
What do rough endoplasmic reticulum do?
They function in synthesis of protein. (build protein)
What do smooth endoplasmic reticulum do?
They function in synthesis of lipids: some of which are use in the formation of cell membranes and carbs.
Where is the gogli apparatus located?
Near the nucleus in most cells.
What does the gogli apparatus do?
Builds and packages secretions such as mucus and enzymes.
What do mitochondria do?
They convert essential nutrients into energy sources, often in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Lysosomes
Contain digestive enzymes, protect against disease and production of nutrients. They break down bacteria and organic debris that have been taken into the cell and releasin usable substances such as sugar and amino acids
Peroxisomes are abundant where?
Abundant in the liver.
Peroxisomes
They absorb and neutralize toxins such as alcohol.
Tissue
Cells that perform a similar function.
Epithelial Tissue
Protective tissue line internal and external body tissue.
What are examples of epithelial tissue?
Skin, mucous membranes, and intestinal tract.
What is differentation or maturation of a cell?
It is when a cell becomes specialized.
What are the 7 major functions of a cell?
Movement, conductivity, metabolic, secretion, excretion, respiration, and reproduction.
Of the different functions that cells perform which one is responsible for movement?
Muscle cells.
Nerve cells
Transmit electical impulses in response to stimuli.
Movement is a function of what type of cells?
Muscle cells.
Conductivity is a function of what type of cells?
Nerve cells.
metabolic absorption a function of what type of cells?
Cells of the intestine and kidneys.
Secretion is performed by?
Glands that secrete substances such as hormones, mucus, sweat and saliva.
excretion is a function of what type of cells?
All cells.
All cells perform excretion as they break down what?
Nutrients and expel wastes.
respiration is the function by which cells do what?
Take in oxygen, which is used to transform nutrients into energy.
Reproduction is the function by which cells do what?
Enlarge, divide and reproduce themselves, replacing dead cells and enabling new tissue growth and healing of wounds.
Which type of cells cannot reproduce?
Nerve cells.