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5 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-are places of union between two or more bones
-are innervated as follows:The nerve supplying a joint also supplies the muscles that move the joint and the skin covering the insertion of such muscles (Hilton´s law)
-are classified on the basis of their structural features into fibrous,cartilaginous and synoval types
Fibrous joints
-are joined by fibrous tissue,have no joint cavities,and permit little movement

-are connected by fibrous connective tissue (like uniting a wound with stiches)
-are found between the flat bones of the skull
-are connected by fibrous connective tissue
-occur as the inferior tibiofibular and tympanostapedial syndesmoses
Cartilaginous joints
-have no joint cavity and are united by cartilage
1)Synchondroses (primary cartilaginous joints)
-are united by hyaline cartilage
-permit no movement but growth in the length of the bone.
-include epiphyseal cartilage plates (the union between the epiphysis and diaphysis of growing bone) and spheno-occipital and manubriosternal synchondroses
2)Symphysis (secondary cartilaginous joints=
-are joined by fibrocartilage and are slightly movable joints
-include the pubic symphysis and the intervertebral disks.
synnovial joints

Part 1/2
-permit a great degree of free movement,and are classified according to the shape of the articular surfaces and axes of movement
-are characterized by four features: joint cavity,articular (hyaline) cartilage,synovial membrane (which produces synovial fluid) and articular capsule

1)Plane (gliding) joints
-are united by two flat articular surfaces and allows simple gliding or sliding of one bone over the other
-occur in the proximal tibiofibular, intertarsal, intercarpal,intermetacarpal, carpometacarpal, sternoclavicular, and acromioclavicular joints.

2) Hinge (ginglymus) joints
-resemble door hinges (spool-like surface fits into a concave surface) and permit movement around one axis (uniaxial) at right angles to bones, allowing flexion and extension only.
occur in the elbow, ankle, and interphalangeal joints.

3) Pivot (trochoid) joints
-are formed by a centrak bony pivot turning within a bony ring
-allow rotation only (movement around one lonhitudinal axis)((uniaxial))
-occur in the superior and inferior radioulnar joints and in the atlantoaxial joint
Cartilaginous joins

Part 2/2
4) Ellipsoidal joints
-have reciprocal elliptical convex and concave articular surfaces
-allows movement in two directions (biaxial) at right angles to eachother
-allow flexion and extention and abduction and adduction but not axial rotation
occurs in the wrist (radiocarpal), atlanto-occipital, and metacarpophalanges joints

5) Condylar joints
-have two convex condyles (knuckles) articulating with two concave condyles. the shape of the articulation is ellipsoidal
-allows movement in two directions (biaxal), including flexion and extention
-occur in the knee (tibiofemoral) and tempromandibular joints.

6) Saddle (sellar) joints
resemble a saddle on a horse´s back
-allow movement in several directions (biaxal) including flexion and extention, abduction and adduction, and circumduction, but no axial rotation.
-occur in the carpometacarpal joint of the tumb and between the femur and patella

7)Ball-and-socked (spherodial) joints
-are formed by the reception of a globular (ball-like) head into a cup-shaped cavity and allow movement in many directions (multiaxial)
-allows flexion and extention,abduction and adduction, medial and lateral rotations, and circumduction.
-occur in the shoulder and hip joints