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126 Cards in this Set

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Removes wastes from the body by constantly filtering blood
urinary system
maintaining a stable environment by continually adjusting conditions
homeostasis
combining forms meaning urine or pertaining to the urinary organs
urin/o
ur/o
combining forms meaning kidney
ren/o
nephr/o
outer layer of the kidney
cortex
combining form meaning outer region
cortic/o
inner layer of the kidney
medulla
combining form meaning middle or inner region
medull/o
functional unit of the kidney
nephron
cluster of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule
glomerulus
combining form meaning glomerulus
glomerul/o
area of the kidney where the nephrons collect before entering the ureters
renal pelvis
combining from for renal pelvis
pyel/o
irregular cuplike spaces that collect urine from the kidney
calyes
calyx (singular form)
concave depression of the kidney that serves as the point of attachment or the renal blood vessels, nerves, and ureter
hilus
cluster of capillaries that filter blood
glomerulus
cup-shaped structure that contains the glomerulus
Bowman's capsule
hollow tubes located between Bowman's capsule and loops of Henle that are involved in reabsorption
proximal convoluted tubules
U-shaped turn in the convoluted tubule of the kidney located between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules that is involved in reabsorption; has ascending and descending loop
loop of Henle
hollow tubes located between the loops of Henle and the collecting tubules that are involved in secretion
distal convoluted tubules
hollow tubes that carry urine from the cortex to the renal pelvis
collecting tubules
rolled or coiled
convoluted
a pair of narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
ureters
combining form for ureter
ureter/o
triangular portion at the base of the urinary bladder where the three angles are marked by the two ureteral openings and one urethral opening
trigone
singular hollow muscular organ that holds urine
urinary bladder
combining form for urinary bladder
cyst/o
ringlike muscles that close a passage
sphincters
hormone produced by the kidney that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow
erythropoietin
hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland that suppresses urine formation by reabsorbing more water
antidiuretic ADH
hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte balance via the reabsorption of sodium
aldosterone
a tube extending from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
urethra
combining form for urethra
urethr/o
external opening of the urethra
urethral meatus
combining form meaning opening
meat/o
process of urine production
uropoiesis
suffix meaning formation
-poiesis
suffix meaning color
-chrome
cloudy urine
turbid
surgical puncture of the urinary bladder, usually to collect urine. It is usually performed with a needle and syringe
cystocentesis
radiographic study of the urinary bladder after contrast material has been placed in the urinary bladder via a urethral catheter
cystography
radiographic film of the urinary bladder after contrast material has been placed in the urinary bladder via a urethral catheter
cystogram
going backwards
retrograde
visual examination of the urinary bladder using a fiberoptic instrument
cystoscopy
fiberoptic instrument used to access the interior of the urinary bladder
cystoscope
radiographic study of the kidney (especially the renal pelvis) and ureters in which a dye is injected into a vein to define structures more clearly
intravenous pyelogram
radiographic study of the urinary bladder after air had been placed in the bladder via a urethral catheter
pneumocystography
imaging of internal structures that is created by exposing specialized film to X-rays
radiography
a plain X-ray made without the use of contrast material
scout film
radiographic study of the kidney and ureters in which a contrast material is placed directly in the urinary bladder
retrograde pyelogram
examination of urine components
urinalysis (UA)
insertion of a tube through the urethra into the urinary bladder (usually to collect urine)
urinary catheterization
hollow tube that is inserted into a body cavity to inject or remove fluid
catheter
presence of the major blood protein in urine
albuminuria
complete suppression of urine production
anuria
presence of bacteria in urine
bacteriuria
urine with naturally produced angular solid of definitive form (crystals)
crystalluria
difficult or painful urination
dysuria
glucose (sugar) in urine
glucosuria or glycosuria
blood in urine
hematuria
presence of ketones in urine
ketonuria
excessive urination at night
nocturia
scanty or little urine
oliguria
frequent urination
pollakiuria
excessive urination
polyuria
presence of proteins in urine
proteinuria
pus in urine
pyuria
slow or painful urination
stranguria
presence of urea or other nitrogenous elements in the blood
azotemia
abnormal mineral deposit
calculus
combining form for stone or calculus

suffix for stone or calculus
lith/o

-lith
fibrous or protein materials found in the urine with renal disease or another abnormality
casts
naturally produced angular solid of definitive form
crystals
urinary bladder pain
cystalgia or cystodynia
inflammation of the urinary bladder
cystitis
displacement of the urinary bladder through the vaginal wall
cystocele
abnormal condition in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis
epispadias
common disease of cats in which cystitis, urethritis, and crystalluria are found
feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD)
inflammation of the kidney involving the glomeruli
glomerulonephritis
dilation of the renal pelvis as a result of an obstruction to urine flow
hydronephrosis
distention of the ureter with urine caused by any blockage
hydroureter
abnormal condition in which the urethra opens on the ventral surface of the penis
hypospadias
eliminating urine at the wrong time or in the wrong place
inappropriate urination
inability to control excretory functions
incontinence
inflammation within the wall of the urinary bladder
interstitial cystitis
suffix meaning the presence of stones or calculi
-lithiasis
distention of the kidneys
nephrectasis
inflammation of the kidneys
nephritis
kidney stone or renal calculus
nephrolith
abnormal softening of the kidney
nephromalacia
disease of the kidneys
nephropathy
abnormal hardening of the kidney
nephrosclerosis
abnormal condition of the kidney(s)
nephrosis
before and after the kidney, respectively
prerenal and postrenal
downward displacement of a body organ
prolapse
suffix meaning drooping or dropping down
-ptosis
inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney
pyelonephritis
inability of the kidneys to function
renal failure
a poison having destructive effects on the kidneys
nephrotoxin
elevated excretion of urine
diuresis
drugs that increase urine production
diuretics
obstruction of blood flow to the kidney(s)
renal infarction
waste products in the blood
uremia
distention of the ureter
ureterectasis
stone in the urethra
ureterolith
stricture of the urethra
urethrostenosis
abnormal band of tissue narrowing a passage
stricture
inability to completely empty the urinary bladder
urinary retention
invasion of microorganisms in the urinary system, which results in local cellular injury
urinary tract infection (UTI)
urinary bladder stone
urolith or cystolith
surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder
cystectomy
surgical fixation of the urinary bladder to the abdominal wall
cystopexy
surgical repair of the urinary bladder
cystoplasty
surgical creation of a new opening between the skin and urinary bladder
cystostomy
surgical incision into the urinary bladder
cystotomy
procedure to remove blood waste products when the kidneys are no longer functioning
dialysis
removal of blood waste products by fluid exchange through the peritoneal cavity
peritoneal dialysis
removal of blood waste products by filtering blood through a machine
hemodialysis
destruction of stone using ultrasonic waves traveling through water
lithotripsy
suffix meaning to crush
-tripsy
surgical removal of a kidney
nephrectomy
surgical fixation of a kidney to the abdominal wall
nephropexy
surgical removal of the ureter
ureterectomy
surgical repair of the ureter
ureteroplasty
surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin
urethrostomy
surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin between the anus and scrotum
perineal urethrostomy