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56 Cards in this Set

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How did repbulicans feel about the economic situation/depression?
The republicians felt like the economic situation would work itself out so they did not push for a lot of reforms and they were wrong.
How did the democrats feel about the economic situtation/depression?
The democrats believed that the New Deal would fix the depression and they were wrong
Who was blammed for the depression and why?
-Hoover
-Because he said that he would fix the remaninder of the economic problems.
Explain "Black Tuesday."
-By 1929 the stock market began to decline quickly.
-On Oct. 29, 1929 "Black Tuesday" the stock market crashed.
-When people went to get their $ out of the banks it was not there
What re the 5 causes of the Great Depression?
1-Lack of diversity in the American economy in the 1920s (business diversity)

2-Uneven distribution of purchasing power (the elites had all the power aka the tycoons)

3-Poor credit structure of the economy (credit was extended to the wealthy and large banks invested recklessly and made bad loans)

4-International trading declined (european demand on american goods declined)

5-International debts (countries that owed u.s. money after WWI did not pay u.s. back)
Explain the Dust Bowl.
-The Dust Bowl from Texas to North Dakota experienced a severe drought for 10 years
-Fertile lands were turned into desert
-By 1934 100 million acres of topsoil was lost to the winds
-Thousands of americans left
Explain the Bonus Army.
-In 1924 congress promised $1000 to veterns of WWI to be paid in 1945.
-Bonus army wanted money now because of depression
-Veterns formed the Bonus Army and demanded their money
-Over 20,000 Bonus Army members marched on Washington and promised to stay there until they were paid.
-Hoover called in police and army to have them removed and they did not get their money.
Who was Franklin D. Roosevelt?
-First president to effectively use the radio to speak to the American people to help restore confidence in the American Economy
-His "fireside chats" explained his plans and programs (the new deal) for the u.s.
-was elected 3 times for president by 1940 first time in history.
What was Roosevelt's first reform?
The emergency banking act.
Explain the Emergency Banking Act.
-Closed banks for 4 days
-Closing banks was too prevent further bankrupcies and closings.
Explain the New Deal. Both.
1-Reforming the economy
2-Bringing relief to the people
Explain the Social Security Act of 1935.
-For the elderly on 2 conditions
1-Destitute
2-Retired
Explain the Court Packing Plan.
-FDR proposed this because he intended to appoint up to 6 new "liberal" justices to the supreme court.
-He thought the current justices at the time were too conservative and overworked and struck down some of his important reforms
-Justices later judged cases in favor of roosevelt's proposals and programs.
Explain the Fair Labor and Standards Act.
Established a minimum wage and a 8 hour work day for all workers.
Who was Francis Perkins?
-1st female presidental cabinet member
-Secretary of labor
-Against married women working to earn extra money for the household.
Explain the Tennessee Valley Authority.
-Created to generate and sell electricity to the public at cheap rates
-Built dams for water access and to decrease flooding
Explain the Economy Act.
-Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corportation
-This act insures your deposits today
What ended the Depression?
WWII, because it gave jobs to a lot of people.
Who was Adolf Hitler?
-Nazi ruler of Germany, beginning in 1933
-On a mission to prove the Superiority of Aryan (German) people which were called the master race.
-Anti-semitic (against jews)
-He set out to expand Germany to provide terroritory for the "master race"
Explain the 1936 Olympics.
-AKA the Hilter Olympics
-Hitler set out to prove that the German "Aryan" people were the dominant race.
-Jesse Owens, and african american from the US defied Hitler's predictions by winning many medels and setting many Olympic records.
-Hitler was so angry he walked out of the Olympic games.
Explain the Holocaust.
-Mission to exterminate jews from Europe
-Started in 1935
-Jews were rounded up and sent to concentration camps in Germany and Poland to be systematically murdered (included were jews, poles, homosexuals, communists, and the handicapped.)
-Millions of jews fled to europe to seek refuge
What was the result of the Holocaust?
-Over 6 million jews were killed and 4 million others
-All together 10 million people.
Explain the St. louis.
-In 1939 the st. louis (passanger ship) transported 900 jews fleeing germany
-The ship tried to dock at various ports in country after country (mexico, paraguay, argentia, costa rica, cuba, and the US) and were turned away
-The ship returned to Europe and passangers were distributed amoung Britain France Holland Beliguim
Explain what occured with Joe Lweis v. Max Schmeling.
-Both men were boxers
-Max Schmeling was a jewish boxer from Germany
-Joe Lewis was a black man from the US
-Firt match Schmeling won and he became a privledged citizen of Germany
-Hilter was using Schmeling to prove to the world that he was not killing jews
-Schmeling was questioned by press about the holocaust and he denied any killing of jews oven though he knew it was true (per hitler's instructions)
-Joe Lewis won the remathc and Schmeling was made an outcast in Germany
Who was Benito Mussolini?
-Fascist leader of Italy.
-His rule began in 1922
-Joined Hitler not because he agreed with him, only because he did not want Hitler to take over Italy.
-He was a dictator just like hitler.
Who is Hirohito?
-Japan formed an expanisonist government under his rule as emperoer
-In 1931 Japan attacked and conquered China's territory of Menchuria
What does Expansionsim mean?
The idea of expanding one's country as much as possible by any means.
Explain the Good neighbor policy 1933.
-Says "no state has the right to intervene in the international or external affairs of another (contradicted the monroe doctrine and the roosevelt corollary)
Explain the Cash and Carry Act.
-1937, the cash and carry policy was passed stating that warring nations could purchase only non-military goods from the US by cash only (no loans) and must provide thier own shipping.
Explain the Quarantine Speech of 1937.
-Japan attacks Manchuria again in 1937
-Roosevelt stated "agressors should be quarantined by the international community" to prevent the war from spreading.
-Basically cut those counties off
-Japan responded by bombing a US gunboat on the Yangtze river in China.
-The japanese claimed it was an accident and the US accepted their apologies
What are some examples of Isolationism of the US during WWII.
-Good neighbor policy
-Neutrality Act
-Cash adn Carry Act
-Quarantine Speech
Explain the Neutrality Act.
Porhibited armed merchant ships from entering or leaving US ports.
Explain Appeasment.
-In 1938 Nazi forces annexed Austria and focused on Czechslovakia and Poland
-Czech needed help in stopping Hitler
-Hitler met with British and French in Munich
-Britain and France accepted Hitler's demands to seize Czech's territory if he promised no more expansionism (appeasement)
-However hitler occupied the rest of czech and threatened to attack poland
-Britain and France assured Poland they would help in case of an attack.
Who is Stalin?
-Leader of the Soviet Union
-Was offended that he was not invided to the munich conference
-He expected no help from western nations if hitler attacked
-In response he signed a non-aggression pact with hitler in 1939.
Explain the non aggression pact between stalin and hitler.
-Means they will not attack each other.-it was nullified in 1941 when nazi forced attacked the soviet union
-stalin was upset
-US extended the lend lease act to the soviet union and soviet union and britain became allies
What offically begins WWII.
Hitler attacked poland on Sept. 1939.
What are the main causes of WWII?
-Japan Germany and Italty wanted to rule the world
-It was baout expansionism
-They signed the Tripartite pact
Explain the Tripartite Pact.
-Between japan germany and italy
-A defensice alliance
-they became allies.
What did Hitler and Mussolini do to france?
Attacked france causing france to fall to a new french regime under control of nazi german troops.
Explain the Burke-Wadsworth Act.
-The US began internal preparations for war
-Passed sept. 1940
-It was the first peactime military draft in US history.
Explain the Lend Lease Act.
Says britain could borrow weapons from US as long as they promised to return them after the war.
What did Japan do that effected the US in 1941?
-In 1941 Japan attacked the pacific islands
-The US then froze japanes assets in the US which denied them access to oil, scrap iron, and other goods for it war machines.
-Genereal Hideki Tojo seized control of the japanese governemnt 1941 and persuaded emperor Hirohito to agree to destroy american naval bases in the pacific (pearl harbor)
-Americans decoded a japanese message indicating an attack
-But there was some confusion on where the attack would be.
Explain Peral Harbor.
-Sunday Dec. 7 1941 japanese bombers attacked the US naval at pearl harbor, hawaii.
-One hour later japan attacked again
-Over 2400 soliders were killed and US battleships and airplanes were destroyed
-Japan continued to attack american airfields
-American forces were now handicapped in the pacific
-This was the 2nd time the US was attacked on its own soil (1st time was the war of 1812 by the british)
When was war declared with the US?
-Dec 11 1941 germany and italy ddeclared war on the US and in return the US declared war on Japan and its allies
-Japan took control of part of the US owned Aleutian islands in alaska.
What happened to Japanese Americans after the attack on Peral Harbor?
-After Pearl Harbor racial animosity reached Japanese Americans that had never been to Japan.
-More than 100,000 were rounded up and sent to concentration camps in western mountains and deserts in the US
-They were thought to be in conspiracy with Japan against the US
-These victims spent up to 3 years in these camps.
Who is Hideki Tojo?
Japanese General
Who was Harry S Truman?
Roosevelt's vice president
Explain the Navajo Code Talkers.
-The japanese had broken every American code over the radio and by tapping the telephone lines
-The US marines used over 400 Navajo Natives to send codes across the radio and telephonesin their native language) to stump the japanese.
-The Navajo language was orally handed down language
-These were the only codes the Japanese could not break.
Explain the Tuskegee Airmen.
-Blacks were not allowed in the marines or the Air Corp because they believed blacks were not smart enough to be pilots.
-Tuskegee Institue had a flying programs that trained blacks to be pilots for the military
-Eleanor Roosevelt went to the school and asked if blacks could fly planes
-A black pilot responded by giving her a ride
-Eleanor accepted in spite of objections
-By next spring black pilots were inducted into the US Army air corp
-The tuskegee airmen were very effective in WWII serving as escorts.
Explain the Zoot Suit Riot.
-Lots of mexicans came to the US during the war to fill the labor shortage on the Pacific coast.
-Lots of mexican american neighborhoods were on the rise which caused ethnic tension
-In 1943 animosity towards zoot suiters (young mexican american gang members who wore suit suits) by the white community caused a 4 day riot in LA
-Zoot suiters were accused of attacking servicemen
-US sailors invaded a mex-american neighborhood and attacked zoot suiters
-LA then passed a law prohibiting the wearing of zoot suits.
What happened at the end of the War?
-1944 allied forces invaded france and freed it from nazi control
-Jan 1945 russian soldiers attacked germany and britain and US followed this weakened german forces
-April 30 1945 Hitler killed himself and a few weeks later german forces surrendered.
What happened during the Battle of Okinawa?
-Japan sent kamikazes (suicide pilots) to inflict damage on allied forces
-The allied forces fire bombed tokyo killing 80,000
Explain the Manhattan Project.
-Einstein (german scientist) warned Roosevelt that germany was making atomic weapons and the US must do the same
-US and Britain were in a race to beat Germany in the development of an atomic bomb (a weapon more powerful than any before it)starting in 1939
-Engineers from manhattan took over the project in hidden labs (oak ridge tn) worked to complete bomb
-In july of 1945 a bomb was tested in New Mexico and was a success
-When President Truman succeeded roosevelt after his death and gave Japan an ultimatum of surrendering by aug 3 1945
-Not getting a reply on aug 6 1945 the US dropped the a-bomb on Hiroshima, killing over 80,000 civilians.
-Still not getting a response from Japan the US dropped a bomb on Nagasaki killing 100,000
When did Japan surrender?
Sept 2 1945
What were the results of the war?
-Over 14 million died in WWII not including civilians
What did the atomic do?
-Ended WWII
-Made US the leading world power.