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57 Cards in this Set

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What are five common causes of hypokalemia?
1) Diarrhea
2) Diuresis associated with certain diuretic drugs
3) Excessive aldosterone or glucocorticoids in the body
4) Decreased dietary intake
5) Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with insulin
What are five common causes of hyperkalemia?
1) Renal failure
2) Deficit of aldosterone
3) Use of “potassium-sparing” diuretic drugs
4) Leakage of intracellular potassium into the ECF in patients with extensive tissue damage such as crush injuries or burns
5) Displace of potassium from cells by prolonged or severe acidosis
What metabolic dysfunctions occur with hyperkalemia?
What metabolic dysfunctions occur with hypokalemia?
What are the 4 main causes of hypercalcemia?
* Uncontrolled release of calcium ions from the bones caused by neoplasms
* Hyperparathyroidism
* Immobility
* Increased intake of calcium caused by either excessive vitamin D or excess dietary calcium
What are six causes of hypocalcemia?
* Hypoparathyroidism
* Malabsorption
* Deficient serum albumin
* Increased serum pH
* Lack of vitamin D
* Chronic renal failure
What are four signs/symptoms of hypercalcemia?
* Depressed neuromuscular activity: muscle weakness, loss of muscle tone, lethargy, and stupor
* Anorexia and nausea
* Interference with ADH in the kidneys, resulting in less absorption of water; polyuria
* Cardiac arrhythmias
What are six signs/symptoms of hypocalcemia?
* Increased neuromuscular stimulation
* Muscle spasm
* Chvostek sign
* Trousseau sign
* Arrhythmias
* Intestinal cramping
What is Chvostek sign?
An indication of latent tetany in which a unilateral spasm of the oris muscle is initiated by a slight tap over the facial nerve anterior to the external auditory canal
What is Trousseau sign?
Compression of the forearm in subjects having undue neuromuscular excitability due to hypocalcaemia produces spasm in the hand and wrist
What are four causes of hyperphosphatemia?
*Renal failure
*Cancer therapy
*Laxatives or enemas containing phosphates
What are the four main causes of hypophosphatemia?
* Malabsorption syndromes
* Diarrhea
* Excessive use of antacids
* Hyperparathyroidism
What are three signs/symptoms of hyperphosphatemia?
* Impaired neurological function: tremors, weak reflexes, paresthesia, confusion, stupor
* Anorexia
* Dysphagia
What are three signs/symptoms of hypophosphatemia?
* Impaired neurological function: tremors, weak reflexes, paresthesia, confusion, stupor
* Anorexia
* Dysphagia
What are three causes of hypermagnesemia?
* Renal failure
* Excessive intake of magnesium-containing antacids
* Adrenal insufficiency
What are five causes of hypomagnesemia?
* Malabsorption
* Malnutrition
* Alcoholism
* Overuse of loop diuretics
* Renal tubular dysfunction
What are two signs/symptoms of hypermagnesemia?
* Depresses neuromuscular function: decreased reflexes, lethargy, and cardiac arrhythmias
* Nausea and vomiting
What are five symptoms of hypomagnesemia?
* Neuromuscular hyperirritability
* Insomia
* Personality changes
* Increased heart rate
* Arrhythmia
What is the most significant effect of serum potassium alterations?
cardiac arrhythmias
What is the normal pH range for humans?
7.34 to 7.45
What does pH stand for?
power of Hydrogen
What two types of chemicals does the body produce that give it a tendency towards acidosis?
* Volatile – eliminated as CO2 gas via lungs and includes carbon dioxide (CO2) or carbonic acid (H2CO3)
* Nonvolatile – eliminated by the kidneys and includes metabolic acids such as lactic acid, ketoacids, sulfates, and phosphates
What is Metabolic acidosis?
an increase in noncarbonic acids or a decrease in bicarbonate
What are four primary causes of metabolic acidosis?
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Renal failure
What are Kussmaul respirations?
deep and rapid respirations
What is Metabolic alkalosis?
Metabolic alkalosis is an excessive loss of metabolic acid and an increase in bicarbonate
What are the primary causes of metabolic alkalosis?
Excessive antacid intake
What is Respiratory acidosis?
an increase in hydrogen ions that results from an increase in carbon dioxide levels (acid)
What are the primary causes of respiratory acidosis?
Decreased ventilation (inadequate respirations), which can be caused by sedative overdose, diseases of the central nervous system, respiratory muscle weakness, or airway obstruction
What are the primary causes of respiratory alkadosis?
Hyperventilation, which can be caused by hypoxemia, hypermetabolic states, salicylate overdose, anxiety, hepatic cirrhosis, sepsis
What fraction of total body water (TBW) volume is contained in the intracellular space?
Which electrolyte is found in the highest concentrations in the intracellular fluid (ICF)?
Potassium (K+)
Which electrolyte disturbance is manifested by muscle spasms and by what mechanism?
Muscle spasms occur with *hypocalcemia* because low calcium levels increase membrane permeability to sodium in excitable cells. Increased sodium influx causes neuromuscular excitability
If an individual has a fully compensated metabolic acidosis, the person's pH is:
How does the hydrogen ion relate to pH?
Hydrogen ions are positive, so they lower pH
How does body fluid move between ICF and ECF compartments?
through osmotic forces regulated by K+ in the ICF and Na+ in the ECF
How does fluid move between the plasma and interstitial fluid?
changes in:
hydrostatic pressure-->pushes H2O
osmotic forces-->pulls H2O
at the arterial and venous ends of the capillary
What is “net filtration”?
force favoring filtration minus the force opposing filtration
What is Starling's hypothesis?
net filtration=force favoring filtration-force opposing filtration
How is net filtration acheived?
What four forces favor the movement of fluid into edemic tissue?
*increased hydrostatic pressure
*lowered plasma oncotic pressure
*increased membrane permeability
*lymphatic channel obstruction
When lymphatic channels are blocked or removed, _________ may develop.
Water balance is regulated primarily by _____, and sodium by ______.
ADH; aldosterone
What is the neural mechanism of the perception of thirst?
dry mouth, hyperosmolality, and plasma volume depletion activate osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus, which then cause thirst
What hormone is Responsible for water conservation?
What hormone is responsible for sodium and potassium regulation?
What hormones are responsible for stimulating water and sodium excretion?
Natriuretic Hormones
How does ADH maintain water balance in the body?
ADH is manufactured in the hypothalamus of the brain and stored in the posterior section of the pituitary gland. Its release is regulated by osmoreceptors that sense when the body fluids vary one way or another from an isotonic state.
How does aldosterone regulate potassium?
increased levels of aldosterone result in sodium conservation and potassium excretion, while low aldosterone levels result in potassium conservation and sodium excretion
How does aldosterone regulate sodium?
Serum aldosterone will rise if the serum sodium concentration drops or if the vascular compartment looses volume or pressure
What are some signs/symptoms of hypernatremic volume depletion?
* Weight loss
* Weak pulses
* Increased heart rate
* Postural hypotension
* Excessive urination
What causes hypernatremic volume excess?
Excessive intake of sodium compared to water
What are the signs/symptoms of hypernatremic volume excess?
* Weakness
* Agitation
* Firm subcutaneous tissue
* Increased thirst
* Edema
* Elevated BP
Name three primary functions of potassium
regulate ICF osmolalitymaintain resting membrane potential
deposit glycerin in liver and skeletal muscle cells
Name five functions that rely on calcium ions
structure of bones and teeth
bood clotting
hormone secretion
cell receptors
membrane stability
Waht are the two primary functions of phosphate ion?
acts as a buffer in acid-base regulation
provides energy in muscle contraction
What major intracellular cation is regulated by PTH?