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70 Cards in this Set

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Peer
Individuals who are about the same age or level of maturity
Cohort
A group of people born around the same time in the same place
How do boys and girls differ nthe want hey spend time away from family?
Boys: increase time alone
Girls: increase time with peers
How are adolescent friendships different from childhood friendships?
Begin hanging out with larger groups. Groups are no longer defined by what they are doing (sports etc), but by more psychological factors.
General trend for age segregation
Created through the modern public school systems no child labor laws
Social rank in a group
Peers?
Social comparison
Provided by peer groups--upward and downward comparison
How do cliques work?
Groups of student's with similar interests
Graph shows fringe members belonging to various groups
How do adolescent groups segregate on race?
It seems to be a volantarry seggregation
Crowds
Larg and looser groups --share common characteristics but may not interact with one another
The perception that teens in other groups are all alike
Outgroup homogeneity bias
Conformity
A change in behavior or attitudes brought by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of others
2 types of social pressure
Informational social influence
Normative social influence
What issues to teens conform to?
Everyday social matters: television, music,books
More likely to follow parents on beliefs and objective matters
Peer status categories
Popular, controversial, rejected, neglected
Popular peer status
Mostly liked, high status
Controvrsial peer status
Liked by some, disliked by others
High status
Rejected peer status
Uniformly disliked
Low status
Neglected peer status
Neither liked nor disliked
Low status
Which peer status category leads to the best psychological outcome?
Popular and controversial
What are effects of rejection?
Lead to academic problems, loneliness, depression, and behavior problems
Why does rejection happen?
In some cases rejection rests on the students' inability to accurately interpret the meaning of their peers behaviors
Intimacy
The feeling of emotional closeness and interconnectedness with another person
Sulivan's basis for successful opposite-sex relationships
Strong same sex bond were needed before building bonds with the opposite sex
Erikson's order of intimacy and identity
Male: identity before intimacy
Female: intimacy before identity
Current research on intimacy
Sequence is not as important as acknowledging the link to adolescence
Adolescence view on friendship
Intimacy and loyalty are a key
Need fulfillment, emotional attachment, interdependence
What roles do teens play in their friendships with one another?
Companionship
Stimulation
Physical support
Psychological support
Social comparison
A safe environment
Intimacy and affection
Benefit of high quality friendship
Better adjusted emotionally
Self-disclosure
Conversation In which information about the self is exchanged with others
Role of self-disclosure
Leads to increased intimacy
Descriptive self-disclosure: facts
Evaluative set-disclosure: feelings
Importnce of conflict in friendships
Learn to manage conflicts and control anger

Develop conflict-management skills
Some ways to make friends with peers
Similarity
Reciprocity
Proximity
Gender
Social isolation
Lonliness in which adolescents suffer from a lack of frien, associates, or relatives
Emotional isolation
Lonliness in which adolescents feel a lack of deep emotional attachment to one specific person
Dating
Individual-choice courtship in which boys and girls pair off together as couples in committed relationships
Hooking up
A more ambiguous term which may imply short term relationship or physical encounter
What does dating fulfill for teens?
It can build status and prestige
Provides a recreational quality to life
Helps build identities
Dating scripts
Cognitive models of what behavior and expectations are appropriate and inappropriate within the context of dating relationships
How are dating scripts formed?
Learned from peers, family, mass media
Why is sex central to teen's lives
Maturation
What influences sexual arousal the most?
The brain
What percent of tens have had sex before the age of 20?
80%
What are norms?
Societal rules-- group rules
What is gender identity?
The gender a person believes he/she is psychologically
How do experts explain homosexuality?
A mix of environmental and genetic factors
What parenting style is associated with teens waiting longer to have sex?
Authoritative/ supportive
What are the reasons teens fail to use contraceptives?
Lack of knowledge
Unrealistic views of sex
What is ether least effective method of contraception?
Withdrawal
What country has the highest teen pregnancy rate?
U.S.
Why might virginity pledges work?
Provide a sense if identity to a group
Accountability
How many teens contact a STI before graduation?
1 in 4
Sexual harassment
Unwanted sexual attention
The creation of a hostile or abusive environment
Or explicit corsion to engage in unwanted sexual activity
Why is the transition from elementary to middle a challenge?
Different classes, techs, students, larger class sizes, larger school
What is the whole child?
Every aspect of the student-- not just the academic side
8 principles of the Carnegie study
1. Create learning communities to make larger schools mo manageable and promote teacher/student relationships
2. Identify the common core of knowledge-- making a connection between disciplines
3. Provide opportunities for all students to succeed through the use of cooperative learning techniques
4. Prepare teachers for better middle school instruction
5. Support academic instruction by providing programs to address health and fitness needs
6. Involve parents and families
7. Give teachers and principles the ability to make changes in the curriculum and to use innovative teaching techniques
8. Connect education more effectively with the community by providing full-ser ice schools
Multicultural education
Goal is to help minority students develop competence I the culture of a majority group while maintains positive group identities that build original cultures
Cultural assimilation model
An approach which the goal of education. Was to assimilate individual cultu identities into a unique American culture
Pluralistic society model
American society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should presee their individual cultural features
Ultimate goal of bilingual education
Gradually shift instruction into English
Drawback to homeschooling
Lack of social interaction
A parents the best equipped to tackle the sciences
Parents lack the preparation
What percentage of high schoolers graduate?
78%
Drawback to homeschooling
Lack of social interaction
A parents the best equipped to tackle the sciences
Parents lack the preparation
How many students who start college will finish with a degree?
40%
What percentage of high schoolers graduate?
78%
Teacher expectancy effect
The cycle of behavior in which a teacher transmits an expectation about a student and thereby actually brings about the expected behavior
How many students who start college will finish with a degree?
40%
Claude Steel -- stereotype threat
Women acceptance of society's stereotypes
Teacher expectancy effect
The cycle of behavior in which a teacher transmits an expectation about a student and thereby actually brings about the expected behavior
Claude Steel -- stereotype threat
Women acceptance of society's stereotypes