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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Galen was one of the first to believe that
physical disorders could have psychological causes.
Mismer believed that many mental diseases developed from
obstruction of animal magnetism
Charcot used hypnosis for the purpose of
distinguishing between convulsions caused by hysteria and those caused by epilepsy
Psychiatric hospitals began as shelters and prisons for
the homeless, the poor, the insane.
The most widely used psychological test is the
MMPI
The MMPI is able to provide __________ based on data collected on eight clinical scales.
a profile
The MMPI works by matching a respondent’s answers to
answers of people with known characteristics
The TAT has been used in many different kinds of testing situations including
assessment of achievement.
A collection of symptoms that occur together make up
a syndrome.
You take an assessment test one week, and then you are asked to take it again a month later. This is likely an example of testing
test-retest reliability
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) was approved by
the American Psychiatric Association.
The DSM-IV
is the most current version of the DSM.
How many axes does the DSM’s multiaxial system contain?
5
While general clinical syndromes are diagnosed on Axis I, medical disorders are diagnosed on
Axis III
While general clinical syndromes are diagnosed on Axis I, Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation are diagnosed on
Axis II
While general clinical syndromes are diagnosed on Axis I, Psychosocial and Environmental Factors are diagnosed on
Axis IV
While general clinical syndromes are diagnosed on Axis I, Global Assessment of Functioning are diagnosed on
Axis V
In order to conduct a true experiment, you must meet two conditions:
Random assignment of subjects to conditions and manipulation of at least one variable
An example of a comparative study is
a correlational study
If two variables are said to be negatively correlated, as one variable
increase, the other decreases
Freud’s version of psychodynamic theory is called
psychoanalysis
The multimodal therapy is the combination of
cognitive and behavioral approaches.
A benefit of cognitive behavioral therapy is that it
is short term, is usually inexpensive, is usually effective at treating a number of disorders and seems to be based on science.
A difference between psychodynamic therapies and cognitive and behavioral therapies is
cognitive and behavioral therapies look at the environment as well as the individual, whereas psychodynamic therapies do not.
The biological model assumes that biology is relevant to __________ of abnormality.
the causes, the symptoms, the treatment, and the understanding
Which model of abnormality conceives of abnormality as an illness?
Biological
In attempting to explain the etiology of abnormal behavior, biological theorists seek to answer two questions:
What caused the brain malfunction and what is the nature of the brain malfunction?
Psychotropic medications have largely replaced
psychosurgery
A therapist who proposes that drugs can treat abnormality is working within the __________ model.
biological
Current biomedical research suggests that there may be genetic predispositions
to some mental disorders and to normal personality
The neurotransmitter most associated with Parkinson’s disease is
dopamine
Which neurotransmitter tends to increase the frequency of release during stressful situations?
dopamine and norepinephrine
The central nervous system contains
brain, spinal cord, and brain stem
Stress plays a role in both psychological and __________ disorders.
physiological
Anxiety disorders are said to occur when
the experienced fear and anxiety prevent normal functioning.
Behavior associated with fear is established through
classical and instrumental conditioning
Very intense fear is phobic only if
the actual danger is slight
Phobias are not
socially acceptable
Many clinicians believe that phobias develop as a result of
classical conditioning
One of the best indicators of how successful modeling will be is how
successful the client expects to be at doing what the model does.
The common process underlying most effective treatments for phobia is
extinction
Social phobia is best treated with which type of medication?
antidepressants
Which are typical aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder?
Anxiety and arousal not present prior to the trauma, Numbness to the world, and Reliving the trauma
Panic attacks typically last for several
minutes
Compared to panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) tends to be
somewhat more prevalent
What are the hallmarks of the obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)?
unwelcome and distressing.
intrude on compulsions.
arise from within the person.
are very difficult to control.
Disorders that are characterized by a loss of physical functioning as a result of psychological conflict, not as a result of physical disorder, are called
somatoform disorders
A conversion disorder is best described as occurring when
psychological stress is turned into physical symptoms.
Complicated medical histories without any physical basis characterize
somatization disorder
The most common somatoform disorder today is
pain disorder (psychalgia).
Which of the following is characterized by complaints of pain in one or more areas of the body, causing marked distress or impairment of functioning?
Pain disorder (psychalgia)
An individual goes to see a therapist with a fear of contracting a serious disease. Even though there is no good reason for believing that the individual actually has the disease, it is likely that the therapist will look toward a diagnosis of
hypochondriasis
physical ailments stemming from psychological problems
somatoform disorders
the idea that treatment can and should consist of techniques from many different theoretical perspectives, without the clinician necessarily adopting the theoretical basis for those techniques
technical eclecticism
a drug which acts on the sympathetic nervous system, producing effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure
dopamine
an important part of the biochemistry of depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety. It is also believed to be influential on sexuality and appetite.
seratonin
a drowsiness-inducing hormone secreted by the pineal gland in response to darkness or low light levels
melatonin
released from the adrenal glands as a hormone into the blood, but it is also a neurotransmitter in the nervous system where it is released from noradrenergic neurons during synaptic transmission.
norepinephrine
Which of the following is not true about hypochondriasis?
The symptoms are intentionally produced, or feigned.
Malingering is characterized primarily by
the individual’s having voluntary control over her symptoms and occurring in order to get some obvious goal.
Factitious disorders are
characterized by voluntarily produced symptoms
Dissociative in dissociative disorders refers to the splitting of
memory
When one feels detachment from oneself, as if looking on oneself from outside one’s body, one is likely suffering from
depersonalization
A fugue state in amnesia refers to
travel away from home
Janet was brought to see her physician by her husband. He reported that ever since a catastrophic fire in their home, Janet has complained of feeling as though she is only observing herself moving through life, not actually living it. On the basis of this information, the physician tentatively diagnoses
depersonalization
Retrograde amnesia is to post-traumatic amnesia as
before is to after
Dissociative amnesia often occurs to people who are experiencing
family, marital, or career stress
In dissociative identity disorder, __________ almost always exists in some form.
amnesia
__________ may appear in more than 95 percent of cases of multiple personality disorder
A history of child abuse
There are still many controversies surrounding the actual existence of
dissociative identity disorder
Many people speak of being depressed; they are not, however, clinically depressed or do not have a depressive disorder. What does this normal, everyday depression share in common with depressive disorders?
In many ways, normal depression differs from depressive disorders in degree and severity, while sharing the same symptoms.
The classification DSM-IV identifies a depression as chronic when it lasts without significant interruption for at least
2 years
as depression worsens, physical symptoms begin to become apparent. what are the physical symptoms?
Weight loss or gain
Sleep disturbance
Loss of interest in sex
Lack of arousal
The text’s conclusion that age is negatively correlated with lifetime risk for depression is based on
cross-sectional correlational studies.
Research has shown that rates of depression in children compare how to the rates of depression in adults?
Rates of depression in children are as high (equal to) adults.
Woman with depression outnumber men with depression by __________ to 1.
2
Recent stressful loss
is a risk factor for depression.
According to research, before age __________, loss of one’s mother to death may predispose adult depression, but not after this age.
11
Moderately severe depression is expected to lift, on average, after approximately
3 months
Very serious depressions usually lift in
6 months
Of people with a serious depression, about __________ do not have another in the following ten years.
40 %
In terms of our current state of knowledge about genetics, we can say that a depressed relative is __________ unipolar depression.
a risk factor
Biological theories of depression focus specifically on the
brain and nervous system
All of these are clues that depression involves physiological factors except
depression is a side effect of some medications, somatic therapies are effective, depression can follow periods of physiological change, and symptoms are similar across cultures.
Two hormone deficiencies that have been implicated in the cause of depression are
hypothyroidism and low testosterone
A system that combines neurotransmitter and hormonal abnormalities as the cause for depression is the
hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.
Helplessness is produced in laboratory animals by __________ events.
uncontrollable
Learned helplessness is shown by
reduced initiation of responses, reduced learning.
What type of explanation for a bad event leads to pervasive helplessness deficits?
Global
Suppose you do poorly on your midterm examination. According to the learned helplessness theory of depression, which of these is the most-depressing explanation you could offer?
“I’m bad at school.”
The MAO inhibitors work by increasing the availability of __________, tricyclics work by increasing the availability of __________, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g., Prozac) work by __________ the availability of serotonin.
norepinephrine; norepinephrine; increasing
Drugs such as those in the same class as Prozac inhibit __________ of serotonin
the reuptake
Wellbutrin affects not only serotonin and norepinephrine, but also
dopamine
Overall, one of the most powerful affects of antidepressants comes from
the placebo effects
Although electroconvulsive shock as a treatment for depression presumably works by affecting the levels of norepinephrine in the brain, this conclusion is hampered because
shock has many effects.
In cognitive therapy, automatic thoughts are combated by __________ them.
testing
Reattribution training in cognitive therapy aims at
finding sources of blame other than the self.
Both drug therapy and cognitive therapy for depression are effective. According to the text, drug therapy is __________, and cognitive therapy is __________.
quicker; more likely to prevent relapse
Bipolar depression usually involves all of the following except
panic attacks.
What are the prominent symptoms of mania?
Flight of ideas
Hyperactivity
Distractibility
Impulsive/reckless behavior
Flight of ideas refers to
distractibility
In terms of sleep behavior, mania manifests as
hyposomnia
In the United States, the lifetime prevalence of bipolar depression is
1 percent.
Which of these statements about bipolar depression is false?
Men are more likely to develop bipolar depression than women.
Common theories about the causes of bipolar disorder focus more on __________ than psychological causes.
brain structures and processes
There is some evidence to suggest a __________ for bipolar disorder.
genetic transmission
The treatment of choice for bipolar disorder is
lithium carbonate.
Newer treatments for bipolar disorder include the use of __________ because their side effects are more manageable than the side effects associated with lithium carbonate.
anticonvulsants