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81 Cards in this Set

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Major depressive disorder
requires major depressive symptoms to be present for at least two weeks. symptoms include depressed mood and lack of pleasure, changes in appetite, concentration, desicion making
Disthymic disorder
choronically depressed more than half of the time plus at least 2 of the four symptoms of MDD
Consequences of depressive disorders
MDD=most prevalent psychiatric disorders. 16.2 percent meet criteria. twice as common in women than men.
Seasonal affective disorders
winter depressions might be due to slower metabolism in winter... related to changes in melatonin
depression with age
with each generation age of onset for major depressive disorder gets younger
3 kinds of bipolar disorders
bipolar 1 disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder,
Mania
state of intense irritability accompanied by other symptoms. might be rude and vulgar and loud.= flight of ideas
criteria===increase in goal directed activity, talkativeness, decreased need for sleep, inflated self esteem, distractibility
mixed episodes of mania
manic episodes mixed with MDD episodes.
hypomania
less extreme mania
Bipolar 1 disorder (manic depressive disorder)
a single episode of of mania in a persons life
BIPOLAR II DISORDER
person must have experienced atleast one major depressive episode and one episode of hypomania
Cyclothymic disorder
frquent but mild episodes of depression alternating with symptoms of mania
Epidemiology+consequences of bipolar disorders
1% meet criteria for bipolar 1
-2 percent experience bipolar 2
- 4percent cyclothymic
-occurs equally among genders
- average age of onset isin early 20's.
more epidemiology of bipolar
bipolar 1 is most severe among mental illness. 1/3 who suffer remain unemplyed for a year after treatment, highrisk for other anxiety disorders and suicide.
subtypes of bipolar/depressive disorders
catatonic features, seasonal/rapid cycling, psychotic features, catatonic features postpartum onset, melancholic
Gentetic contribution of major depressive
modest contrib. seotonin receptor disfunction... cortisol high possible change in the dopamine receptors within the reward system
genetic contribution to bipolar disorder
High contrib. serotonin receptor disfunction possible involvement of dopamine receptors in the reward system possible deficits in cell membranes and neural functioning.
--bipolar among most heritable of disorders 37% variance explained by genes
neurotransmitters in mood disorders
serotonin, dopamine, norepinephhrine. what is actually happening is that receptors are overly sensitive to different neurotransmitters
tryptophan
major precursor to serotonin=involved in mood disorders
other neurotransmitter influences on mood disorders
second messengers adjust postsynaptic receptor sensitivity
-g protiens=important role modulating activity in the post synaptic cell
Primary brain structures involved in depression
amygdala, hippocampus, subgenual anterior cingulate, prefrontal cortex (structures help retreive memories about previous stimuli)
possible cause of depression
changes in the reward pathways
Neuroendocrine system
Cortisol disregulation and depression
HPA access
biological systen that manages the reactivity to stress, Regulates CORTISOL
Receives input from structures related to the amygdala
Cushing's syndrome
overproduction of cortisol=frequently experience depressive episodes
altruistic suicide
Altruistic suicide is suicide committed for the benefit of others. Falling on a grenade is one such example
anomic suicide
is a suicide resulting from a lack of normative integration
egoistic suicide
occurs in a society where there is excessive individualism, that is, low integration into society
Mindlfullnes based cognitive therapy
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is psychological therapy which blends features of cognitive therapy with mindfulness techniques of Buddhism.
MAOI
any of a group of antidepressant drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain and so allow monoamines to accumulate
Negative triad
Beck's negative triad holds that depressed people have negative thoughts about themselves, their experiences in the world, and the future.
postpartum onset
Ocuuring after a trauma
psychoeducational approach
of or relating to the psychological aspects of education; specifically : relating to or used in the education of children with behavioral disorders or learning disabilities
SSRI's
any of a class of antidepressants (as fluoxetine or sertraline) that inhibit the inactivation of serotonin by blocking its reuptake by presynaptic nerve cell endings—called also selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
tricyclic antidepressants
any of a group of antidepressant drugs (as imipramine, amitriptyline, desipramine, and nortriptyline) that contain three fused benzene rings, that potentiate the action of catecholamines (as norepinephrine and serotonin) by inhibiting their uptake by nerve endings, and that do not inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase
tryptophan
essential amino acid that is a precursor to erotonin
Freud's factors in depression
potential for depression is created in early childhood
-childhood trauma= feelings of anger and mourning become directed inwardly
somatic arousal
sweaty palms, fast heart rate,
Comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders
people who feel high negative affect, low positive affect and high somatic arousal.
Neuroticism
personality trait that develops from tendancy to overreact to events with greater than average negative affect.
Extraversion
personality trait associated with frequent experiences of positive affect.
Beck's theory
most important theory: proposed negative triad: people get sad because they think negatively. they create negative schemata in childhood
Schemata
underlying set of beliefs that underly a persons thoughts and judgements
cognitive biases
tendencies to process information in negative ways
Dysfunctional attitudes scale
tested becks theory: tests how people think about themselves and others
Learned helplessness theory
uncontrollable aversive event>> sense of helplessness>>depression
attributional Reformation
aversive event>> attribution to interna; stable and globaal factors>>Sense of helplessness;no response available to alter situation>>depression
hopelessness
aversive evets>>attribution>>expectation desirable outcomes will not occur>> hopelessness subtype of depression defined by specific symptoms
casses of mania
disruption of the reward pathway system
criteria for substance abuse
3 or more: tolerance/withdrawal/desire to control use, much time spent trying to obtain, continued use despite knnowing the consequences
Criteri for substance abuse
1 of the following: failure to meet obligations, repeated use in situations where it is dangerous, repeated legal problems, continued use despite poor health
Delerium tremens
when alcohol in blood drops suddenly person becomes delerious, hallucinates, tremulates.
prevalence
12-17% rate of lifetime prevalence of dependence-abuse respectively
alcohol comorbidity
comorbid with mood disorders schizophrenia anxiety
expenditures on health care
26 billion annually in the US
Short term effects of alcohol
produces effect by stimulating GABA receptors, increases serotonin and dopamine, inhibits glutamate receptors=slow thinking
Long term effects of alcohol
Fetal alcohol syndrome, vitamin deficiency, loss of memory, cirrhosis of the liver, ED heart failure, hypertension, stroke,
Nicotine and Cig smoking prevalence
440,000 die each year. responsible for 1 of 6 deaths. cost of smoking each year 157 Billion
Second hand smoke
40,000 deaths a year, can suffer lung damage, cardiovascular disease lung cancer. babies born prematurely. Infant death syndrome
Marijuana
Hashish much stronger, 15 percent of people have smoked marijuana
physical consequences of marijuana
effects two cannabis receptors CB1 and CB2 high number in hippocampus (CB1) ... increases blood flow to the brain and amygdala
therapeutic effects oof weed
reduce nausea and loss of appeite from chemotherapy treatment for discomfort of aids.
Opiates
morphine heroine codiene opium minor tranquilizers, synthesized barbiturates
morphine, heroine
separated from opium in 1806- 1874 this turned into heroin.... legal opiates=hydrocodon vicodin
depressants
(anxiolytics, sedatives)
Alcohol...tension reduction followed by depressed physical and psychological functioning...disorientation, loss of consciousness, death at extremely high BALs
Alcohol age of onset
in 2005, 34% of 8th-graders and 57% of 10th-graders reported alcohol use in the past year (Johnson et al., 2006)

15% of 8th-graders and 30% of 10th-graders reported use of an illicit drug

age at first use declined for decades, until the early 1990s (NIAAA):
alcohol prevalence
prevalence (Kendler et al., 2005)

lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence about 13% and 5%, respectively

lifetime prevalence of drug abuse and dependence about 8% and 3%, respectively

about 15% of people experience some form of substance use disorder (SUD) in their lifetime

prevalence of opiate addiction increasing rapidly

large cohort effects in lifetime prevalence:
heritability
very high heritability of nicotine and alcohol dependence
Alogia
is one of the "negative" symptoms of schizophrenia, where it may take the form of speaking very little or a lack of spontaneous content in conversation, called "poverty of speech."
asociality
Asociality is a negative symptom frequently observed in schizophrenia patients. It is characterised by an inability to 'empathise', to feel intimacy with, or to form close relationships with others
avolition
Avolition is a psychological state characterized by general lack of desire, drive, or motivation to pursue meaningful goals
catatonia
Abnormality of movement and behavior arising from a disturbed mental state. It may involve repetitive overactivity, catalepsy
dementia preacox
schizophrenia: any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language
dopamine theory
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia or the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis is a model attributing symptoms of schizophrenia (like psychoses) to a disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction
flat effect
A severe reduction in emotional expressiveness. People with depression and schizophrenia often show flat affect. A person with schizophrenia may not show the signs of normal emotion, perhaps may speak in a monotonous voice, have diminished facial expressions, and appear extremely apathetic. Also known as blunted affect.
ideas of reference
Ideas of reference and delusions of reference involve people having a belief or perception that irrelevant, unrelated or innocuous phenomena in the world refer to them directly or have special personal significance: 'the notion that everything one perceives in the world relates to one's own destiny
loose associations
thought or communication pattern disorder characterized by loose or odd connections between ideas. A person having this disorder is unable to express a set of well-structured, logically related ideas.
residual schizophrenia
Blunted or inappropriate affect, social withdrawal, eccentric behaviour, or loose associations, but without prominent psychotic symptoms, as the remains of former psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.
schizoaffective disorder
Schizoaffective disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental disorder characterized by recurring episodes of elevated or depressed mood, or of simultaneously elevated and depressed mood, that alternate with, or occur together with, distortions in perception.
schizophreniform disorder
Schizophreniform disorder is a mental disorder diagnosed when symptoms of schizophrenia are present for a significant portion of the time within a one-month period, but signs of disruption are not present for the full six months required for the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
undiferentiated hypothesis
Patients in this category have the characteristic positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia but do not meet the specific criteria for the paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic subtypes.