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349 Cards in this Set

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What are core concepts of abnormal psychology?
-they are the central aspects of the field even as our knowledge has grown and changed
What are the 3 reasons why context of abnormal psych is important?
-circumstances surrounding the behavior is important for defining whther or not the behavior is normal
-cna help us explain the behavior
-can show us how behavior is influenced by gender, age, class, and culture
What are the 6 core concepts of abnormal psychology?
-The importance of context in defining and understanding abnormality
-the contiuum b/t normal and abnormal psyche
-cultural and historuical relativiism in defining and classifiying
-advantages and limitations of diagnosis
-prinicple of multiple causality
-conncetion b/t mind and body
What is reliablity?
-consistency of a test, measurement, or category system
What is validity?
-accuracy of a test, measurment, or category system
What are precipitating causes?
-immediate trigger or precipitant of an event
What are predisposing causes?
-underlying processes that create conditions making it possible for a precipitating cause to trigger an event
What is reductionism?
-relying on one theory or concept to explain disorders
What is abnormal psychology?
-the subfield of psychology devoted to the study of ental disorders
What are the 5 commonly used criteria in dfeining abnormality?
-Help seeking
-irrationality/dangerousness
-Deviance
-emotional distress
-significant impariment
What are natural categories?
-categuroies that usually work reasonably well in veryday use, despite their lack of precision
What is animism?
-vbelief in the existance and power of a spirit world
What is deinstitutionalization?
the social policy, beginning in the 1960s, of discharging large numbers of hospitalized patients into the community
What are humours?
-four bodily fluids believed, by Hippocrates and Greek doctors, to control health and disease
What is hysteria?
-a term used for centuries to describe a syndrome of symptoms that appear to be neurological, but do not have a neurologocial cause
-now known as conversion disorder
What is suggestion?
-the physicaland psychological effects of mental states such as belief, confidence, submission to authority, and hope
What are paradigms?
-overall scientific worldviews, which radically shift at various points in history, according to philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn
what is the diatheis-stress model?
-the view that the development of a disorder requires the interaction of a diathesis and a stress
What is general paresis?
-a diease, due to a suyphilis infection, that can cause psychosis , paralysis, and death
What is psychosocial dwarfism?
-a rare disorder in which the physical gorwth of children deprived of emotional care is stunted.
What is the bipsychosocial model?
-a perspective in abnormal psychology that integrates biological, psychosocial, and social components
What is correlation?
a statistical term for a systematic association between variables
What is longitudianal research?
-research that studies subjects over time
What is a psychodynamic?
-the theoretical perspective which began with Freud's work and is associated with emphasis on unconscious mental processes, emotional conflict, and the influence of childood on adult life
What is the unconscious?
Mental contents that ar eoutside of awareness
-the irratuional, instintutional part of the mind in Frued's topographic theory
What is repression?
-a defense mechanism consisting of the forgetting of painful or unacceptable mental content
What is the conscious?
-menatal contents that are within awareness
-also rational part of mind in freud's topographic theory
What is the topographic theory?
-Freud's first model of the mind, divided into the unconscious, conscois,a nd preconscious parts
What is the preconscious?
-Mental contents that are not tthe focus of conscious attention but are accessib;e becuase they are not repressed
What is stuctural model?
-Freud's final model of the mind, divided into the id, the ego, and the superego
What is the id?
-part of the mind containing instinctual urges
What si the superego?
-part of the mind that contains moral judgements and evaluates the self
What si the ego?
-the part of the mind that is oriented to the external world and mediates the demands of the id and superego
what are defense mechanisms?
-unconscious, automatic mental processes that reduce anxiety by warding off unacceptable thoughts and feelings.
What is humanistic theory?
-the theoretical perspective that emphasizes the importance of self-actualization in human life and unconditional positive regard in relationships
What is self-actualization?
-the pursuit of one's true self amd meeds in the humanistic theory
What is uncoditional positive regard?
-the provision of nconditional love, empathy, and acceptance in relationships within the humanistsic theory
What is the existential theory?
-the theorretical perspective that emphasies individual responsibility for creating meaning in life in the face of universal anxiety about death
What uis client centered therapy?
A humanistic treatment approch developed by Carl rogers
What is the behaviorism theory?
-emphasizes with the influence of learning with the use of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and modeling on behavior
What is classical conditioning?
-learnign that takes place through automatic associations b/t neural stimuli and uncondtionied stimuli
What is temporal contiguity?
-2 events occuring closely together in time
What is an uncondtioed stimulus?
-a stimulus that automatically elicits a response through a natural reflex
What is a conditioned stimulus?
-a prevously neurtal stimulus that acquires the ability to elicit a response through classical conditioning
What is a conditioned response?
-the response elicited by a conditoned stimulus
What is a phobia?
An intense, persistent, and irrational fear of a specific object or situation
What is opernat conditioning?
-a form of lerning in which behaviors are shaped through rewards and punishments
What is reinforement?
-Any environmental response to a behavior that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated in operant condtioning
What is punishment?
-any environmental response to a behavior that decreases the probability of the behavior will be repeated in operant conditioning
What is the law of effect?
Thordike's principle that behaviors followed by pleasurable consequences are likly to be repeated while behaviors followed by aversive consequences are not.
What is modeling (social/observational learning)?
-learning based on observing and imitating the behavior of others
What is a psychodynamic?
-the theoretical perspective which began with Freud's work and is associated with emphasis on unconscious mental processes, emotional conflict, and the influence of childood on adult life
What is the unconscious?
Mental contents that ar eoutside of awareness
-the irratuional, instintutional part of the mind in Frued's topographic theory
What is repression?
-a defense mechanism consisting of the forgetting of painful or unacceptable mental content
What is the conscious?
-menatal contents that are within awareness
-also rational part of mind in freud's topographic theory
What is the topographic theory?
-Freud's first model of the mind, divided into the unconscious, conscois,a nd preconscious parts
What is the preconscious?
-Mental contents that are not tthe focus of conscious attention but are accessib;e becuase they are not repressed
What is stuctural model?
-Freud's final model of the mind, divided into the id, the ego, and the superego
What is the id?
-part of the mind containing instinctual urges
What si the superego?
-part of the mind that contains moral judgements and evaluates the self
What si the ego?
-the part of the mind that is oriented to the external world and mediates the demands of the id and superego
what are defense mechanisms?
-unconscious, automatic mental processes that reduce anxiety by warding off unacceptable thoughts and feelings.
What is humanistic theory?
-the theoretical perspective that emphasizes the importance of self-actualization in human life and unconditional positive regard in relationships
What is self-actualization?
-the pursuit of one's true self amd meeds in the humanistic theory
What is uncoditional positive regard?
-the provision of nconditional love, empathy, and acceptance in relationships within the humanistsic theory
What is the existential theory?
-the theorretical perspective that emphasies individual responsibility for creating meaning in life in the face of universal anxiety about death
What is a psychodynamic?
-the theoretical perspective which began with Freud's work and is associated with emphasis on unconscious mental processes, emotional conflict, and the influence of childood on adult life
What is the unconscious?
Mental contents that ar eoutside of awareness
-the irratuional, instintutional part of the mind in Frued's topographic theory
What is repression?
-a defense mechanism consisting of the forgetting of painful or unacceptable mental content
What is the conscious?
-menatal contents that are within awareness
-also rational part of mind in freud's topographic theory
What is the topographic theory?
-Freud's first model of the mind, divided into the unconscious, conscois,a nd preconscious parts
What is the preconscious?
-Mental contents that are not tthe focus of conscious attention but are accessib;e becuase they are not repressed
What is stuctural model?
-Freud's final model of the mind, divided into the id, the ego, and the superego
What is the id?
-part of the mind containing instinctual urges
What si the superego?
-part of the mind that contains moral judgements and evaluates the self
What si the ego?
-the part of the mind that is oriented to the external world and mediates the demands of the id and superego
what are defense mechanisms?
-unconscious, automatic mental processes that reduce anxiety by warding off unacceptable thoughts and feelings.
What is humanistic theory?
-the theoretical perspective that emphasizes the importance of self-actualization in human life and unconditional positive regard in relationships
What is self-actualization?
-the pursuit of one's true self amd meeds in the humanistic theory
What is uncoditional positive regard?
-the provision of nconditional love, empathy, and acceptance in relationships within the humanistsic theory
What is the existential theory?
-the theorretical perspective that emphasies individual responsibility for creating meaning in life in the face of universal anxiety about death
What is excintion?
- the weakening of a connectio n b/t a conditonmed stimulus an da conditioned response
What is exposure?
-a technique of gradually incrasing exposure toa conditioned stimulus (such as a feared objext) in order to promote extinction
What is systematic desensitization?
technique of gradually increased exposure to a conditioned stimulus (such as a feared object) while practicing relaxation techniques
What is aversion therapy?
-Behavioral technique involving pairing an unwanted behavior with an aversive stimulus in order to clasically condition a connection between them.
What is contingency management?
-the use of reinforcements and punishments to shape behavior.
What are token economies?
-the systematic use of coin-like tokens as rewards in an operant conditoning treatment progranm
What is social skills training?
-the use of operant conditioning techniques and modeling in order to improve social skills
What is the cognitive perspecitve?
-the theoretical perspective that focuses on the influence of thoughts on behavior
What are cognitive schemas?
mental models of the world used to organize information
What is cognitive restructuring?
-therapy techniques that focus on changing irrational and problematic thoughts
Whata re attributions?
-people's beliefs about the causes of events
What are explanatory styles?
-the patterned ways (such as pessism) in whiich people perceive and explain the cuases of life events
What is the cognitive behavioral approach?
-approches that combine cognitive and behavioral principles
What are cognitive distortions?
-irrational beliefs and thinkign processes
What are negative automatic thoughts?-
Negative thoughts generated by negative cognitive schemas
What is the cognitive triad?
- the tirad consisting of one's self, one's future, and one's world in the cognitive theory
What is homeostasis?
-the tendency of systems , such as family systems, to maintain stable pattern
What is an enmeshed family?
Families in which boundaries b/t members are weak and relationships tend to be intrusive
What are disengaged families?
-families in which relationships tend to be distant and unemotional
What is a genogram?
-diagram of the structure of a family
What is an identified patient?
-the member of the family identified by the family as having problems
-familysystems theorists see this as a manifestation of a problem in the family system, not in an individual memeber
What si the cnetral nervous system?
-the control center for transmitting information and impulses throughout the body, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord.
What is a neuron?
-an individual nerve cell
What is the thalamus?
-a subcortical brain structure involved in routing and filtering sensory input
What is the hypothalamus?
-a subcortical brain structure that controls the endocrine, or hormonal, system.
What is the basal ganglia?
A subcortical brain structure involved in the regulation of movement
What are neurotransmitters?
-chemicals that allow neurons in the brain to communicate by traveling between them
What is a synapse?
-point of connection b/t neurons
What is the synaptic cleft?
-the tiny gap b/t one neruon and the next at a synapse
What are receptors?
-the areas of a neuron that receive neurotransmitters from adjacent neurons
What are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors?
Medications that block the reuptake of serotonin from the synapse
-used in the treament of depressuion and other disorders
What is the peripheral nervous system?
-network of nerves throughout the body that carries information and impulses to and from the CNS
What is the Somatic nervous system?
-connects the CNS with the sensory organs and skeletal muscles
What is the autonomic nervous system?
-connects the CNS with the body's internal organs
What is the sympathetic divsion of the nervous system?
-network of nerves within the ANS that regulate the body's response to emergency and arousal situations
What is the parasympathetic division of the nervous system?
-netowrk of nerves within the ANS that regualte the body's calming and energy-conserving functions
What is the endocrine system?
-the system of glands that controls the production and release of hormones
What are hormones?
-chemicals released by the endocrine system that regulate sexual behavior, metabolism, and physical growth.
What are family pedigree studies?
-studies designed to investigate whether a disorder runs in families
What are twin studies?
-studies designed to compare concordance rates for a given disorder b/t indentical versus non-identical twins
What is concordance?
-Situation in which 2 twins both have the same disorder
What is the concordance rate?
-in a group of twins, the percentage that both have the same disorder
What are adoption studies?
-studies designed to compare the concordance rates for a given disorder of biological versus nonbiological parent-child pairs
What is genetic linkage?
-studies looking for the specific genetic material that may be responsible for the genetic influence on particular disorders
What is natural selection?
-the evolutionary theory and process by which organisms, over generations, tend to change and develop traits and behaviors that enhance survival and reproduction
What is a prefrontal lobotomy?
-the surgical destruction ogf a certain brain tissue as a treatment for a mental disorder
What is an insulin coma?
-the deliburate induction of a seizure and coma using insulin
-formerly used to treat mental disorderq
What is electroconvulsive therapy?
-the deliberate induction of a seizure by passi ng electrical curent through the brain
-currently used to treat severe depression in some circumstances
What is psychotrphic?
-medications designed to affect mental functioning
What are agonists?
-drugs that increase neurotransmission
What are antagonists?
-drugs that reduce or block neurotransmission
What is a psychotic?
-out of contact with reality, such as experiancing hallucinations or delusions
What are delusions?
-fixed, false, and often bizarre beliefs
What are hallucinations?
-abnormal sensory experiances, such as hearing or seeing nonexistent things
What is a diagnoses?
-categories of disorders or diseases according to a classification system
What is an assessment?
-the process of gathering information in order to make a diagnoses
What is DSM?
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders published by the American Psychiatric Associationm currently in its 4th revised edition
What is interjudge reliability?
-consistency or agreement b/t multiple interviewers or raters
What is test-retest reliability?
-consistency or agreement b/t multiple administrations of the same test
What is the dimensional system?
-a diagnostic system in whcih individuals are rated for the degree to which they exhibit traits along certain dimensions
What is the categorial approach?
-diagnostic system like the DSM system, in which individuals are diagnosed according to whether or not they fit certain defined categories.
What are symptom disorders?
-disorders characterized by the unpleasant and unwanted forms of distress and/or impairment
What are personality disorders?
disorders characterized by extreme and rigid personality traits that cause impairment.
What is comorbidity?
-the presence of 2 or more disorders in one person, or a general association b/t 2 or more different disorders
What is ego-dystonic?
-behaviors, thoughts, or feelings that are experianced by an individual as distressing and unwelcome
What is ego-syntonic?
-behavior, thoughts, or feelings that are experianced by an individual as consistent with his or her sense of self.
What is the global assessment of fuctioning?
A scale rating as individual's level of functioning used for Axis V of the DSM-IV-TR
What is the mental status exam?
-a series of questions designed to assess whether a client has major problems with cognitive functions and orientation to reality.
What are symptom and personality questionaires?
-tests designed to emasure symptoms or personality traits based on clients' responses to structured questions
What is the Beck Depression inventory?
A widely used depression symptom questionaire
What is the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory?
-a widely used personality questionaire
What are projective tests?
Tests designed to measure client characteristics based on clients' responses to and interpretations of ambiguous stimuli
What us the rorschach test?
a projective test in which clients' responses to inkblots are interpreted and scored
What is the thematic apperception test
a projective test in which clients are asked to make up stories about pictures of people in ambiguous situations.
What is the draw-a-person test?
-a projective test in which clients are asked to draw pictures of themselves and other people
What is stanford-binet?
-the first widely used intelligence test
What is the intelligence quotient (IQ)?
-a measurement of overall intellectual ability obtained by intelligence tests
What is the wechsler adult intelligence test?
-currently, the most widely used intelligence test.
What is anxiety?
-an unpleasant emotion characterized by a general sense of danger, dread, and physiological arousal
What is trait anxiety?
-an individual's tendency to respond to a variety of situations with more or less anxiety
What is state anxiety?
-an individual's level of anxiety at a specific time.
What is generalized anxiety disorder?
-chronic, pervasve, and debilitating nervousness
What is panic disorder?
-panic attacks that cause ongoing distress or impairment
What is a panic attack?
-discrete episode of acute terror in the absense of real danger
What si a phobia?
-an intense, persistent, and irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
What is a social phobia?
-a phobia in which fears are focused on social situations or other acitvities where there is a possibility of being observed and judged
What is agoraphobia?
-a fear of wide open spaces or crowded places
What is specific phobia?
-any phobia that is not a social phobia or agoraphobia
What is obsessvive-compulsive disorder?
-an anxiety disorder in whcih distressing and unwanting thoughts lead to compulsive rituals that significantly interfere with daily functioning
What are obsessions?
-unwanted and upsetting thoughts or impulses
What are compulsions?
-irrational rituals that are repeated in an effort to control or neutralize the anxiety brought on by obsessional thoughts
What is trauma?
-an emotionally overwhelming experiance in which there is a possiblity if death or serious injury to oneself or a loved one
What is acute stress disorder?
-significantpostraumatic anxiety sympotoms that occur within one month of a traumatic experiance
What is posttraumatic stress disorder?
-significant posttraumatic anxiety sympotoms occuring more than one month after a traumatic experiance
What is a flashback?
-a vivid and often overwhelming recollection of past traumatic experiances
What is nervios?
-A term used by Latino populations in Latin America and in the US to describe a range of symptoms of nervous distress
What is ataque de nervios?
-a term used in some Latino cultures to sescribe an episode of intense anxiety
What is shenjing shuairuo?
-An anxiety syndrome reconized in China including symptoms of physcial or mental exhaustion, difficulty sleeping and concentrating, physical pains, dizziness, headaches, and memory loss
What is taijin kyofusho?
an anxiety disorder reconized in Japan characterized by worry that one's body or aspects of one's body will be displezasing or offensive to others
What is prepared conditioning?
-classical conditioning based on an evolutionary derived snesitivity to certain stimuli that were dangerous in an ancestral environment
WWhat is fear hierarchy?
-in systematic desensitixation, a lst of feared situations ranging from leasdt to most terrifying
What is in vivo desensitization?
-behavioral desensitizationm training in whcih the client is actually confronted with the feared stimulus
Wjhat is covert desensitization?
behavioral desensitization training for phobias in which the client practices relaxation techniques while imagining being confronted with the feared stimulus
What is flooding?
-intensive exposure to the a feared stimulus
What is interoceptive exposure?
-deliberate induction of the physiological sensations typically assoicated with a panic attack
What is exposure and response prevention?
-a behaviorial intervention in wehivch clients are encouraged to confront a frightened thought ior situation and then prevented from engading in anxiety0reducing behaviors
Whats is covert response prevention?
-exposure and response prevention in obsessive-compulsive disorder for clients whose compulsions are mental processes (not behaviors)
What is prolonged imaginal exposure?
-a behavioral intervention in which clients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder are encouraged to describe the traumatizing experiances in detail
What are cognitive distortions?
-irrational beliefs and thinking processes
What is dichotomous reasoning?
-a cognitive distortion involving thinking in terms of extremes and absolutes
What is catastrophizing?
-a cognitive distortion involving the tendency to view minro problems as major catastrophes
What is personalization?
-a cognitive distortion in which one wrongly assumes that he or she is the cause of a particular event
What is labeling?
-a cognitive distortion in which people or situations are characterized on the basis of global, not specific, features
What is the limbic system?
-a group of subcortical strucures involved in the experiance and expression of emotions and the formation of memories
What is the amygdala?
a brain struture which registers the emotional significance of sensory signals and contributes to the expression of emotion
What is the gamma-animobutyric acid?
A neurotransmitter that inhibits nervous system activity
What is norepinephrine?
-a neurotransmitter associated with the activation of thre sympathetic nervous system
-involved in depression and panic attacks
What is the locus coeruleus?
-a part of the brain stem associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system
What is serotonin?
-a neurotransmitter associated with depression and anxiety
What is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors?
-a "second generation" class of antidepressabnt mediaction that block the reuptake of serotonin from the synapse
-used in the treatment of depression and other disorders
What is tricyclic antidepressants?
-a "first generation" class of antidepressant medications which increases the availability of both serotonin and norepinephrine
Whata re barbiturates?
-sedative drugs sometimes used to treat anxiety
What are benzodiazepines?
-sedative drugs that treat anxiety by increasing the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid
What are beta-blockers?
-drugs that treat anxiety by decreasing the activity of the norepinephrine
What are azaspirones?
-drugs that treat anxiety by regulating serotonin
What is the isolation of affect?
-a defense mechanism in whcih thoughts occur without associated feelings
What is repression?
a defense mechanism consisting of the forgetting of painful or unacceptable mental content
What is displacement?
-a defense mechanism in which feelings about someone or something are unconsciously shifted to someone or somethign else
What is the oedipus complex?
a phase during normal development when childrren desire an explusive loving relationship with the parent of the oppsoite sex
What is undoing?
-a defense mechanism in whcih one action or thought is used to "cancel out" another action or thought
What is the HPA axis?
a brain system involving the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex that regualted the release of stress hormones into the bloodstream
What is depression?
-a state of abnormally low mood with emotional, cognitive, motivation, and/or physical features
What is mania?
-a state of abnormally high mood, with emotional, cognitive, motivational, and/ or physical features
What is melancholia?
-an earlier historuical term for depression
What is bipolar disorder?
-mood disorders in which an individual experiances both abnormally low and high moods
What is unipolar disorder?
-mood disorders in which an individual experiances only abnormally low moods
what are mood episodes?
periods of abnormal mood that are the building blocks of the DSM-IV-TR mood disorders
What is a major depressive episode?
-a 2 week or longer period of depressed mood along with several other significant depressive symptoms.
What is a manic episode?
-a one-week or logner period of manic symptoms causing impairment in functioning
What is hypomania?
-a less extreme version of manic episode that is not severe enough to significantly interfere with functioning
What is major depressive disorder?
-the occurance of one or more major depressive episodes
What is dysthymic disorder?
-2 years or more of consistently depressed mood and other symptoms that are not severe enough to meet criteria for a major depressive episode
What is bipolar I disorder?
-combination of major depressive episodes and manic episodes
What is bipolar II disorder?
-combination of major depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes
What is cyclothymic disorder?
-2 years or more of consistent mood swings b/t hypomanic highs and dysthymic lows
What are monoamines?
-a class of neurotransmitters involved in mood disorders, including norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin
What is the monoamine hypothesis?
-the hypothesis that depression is partially caused by insufficent neurotransmission of monoamines
What is cortisol?
-a hormone released by the pituitary gland in response to stress
What are tricyclics?
-one of the "first generation" classes of antidepressant drugs
-they block the reuptake of norepinephrine
What are MAOs (monoanime oxidase inhibitors)?
antidepressant mediactions that inhibit an enzyme (monoamine oxidase), which degrades serotonin and norepinephrine, thus enhancing neurotransmission
What are SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)?
A "second generation" class of antidepressants
-they inhibit the reuptake of serotonin
What is ECT (electrocovulsive therapy)?
-a biological intervention for severe depression involving sending electric current through thre skull to produce seizures
What is lithium?
-a naturally occuring salt that is a main mood stabilizing medication for bipolar disorders
What is the negative cognitive triad?
-irrationally negative thinking about the self, the world, and the future
What are negative automatic thoughts?
-negative thoughts generated by negative cognitive schemas
What are cognitive distortions?
-irrational beliefs and thinking processes
What is learned helplessness?
-cognitive-behavioral theory in which animals give up adaptive responding after prior experiance with inescapable punishmemt.
What is pessimistic explanatory (attributional) style?
-cognitive theory concerning the tendency to make internal, global, and stable explanations of negative events as a risk factor for depression
What is interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT)?
-an influential current treatment for depression that integrates psychodynamic, cognitive, and behavioral components
What is dissociation?
A significant disruption in one's conscious experiance, memory, sense of identity, or any combination of the three
What is depersonalization disorder?
-persistant and distressing feelings of being detached from one's mind or body
What is dissociative amnesia?
-pscyogenic loss of ability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature
What is localized amnesia?
-loss of memory for all of the events that occurred within a circumscribed period of time
What is selective amnesia?
-loss of memeory for some, but not all, of the events froma specific period of time
What is generalized amnesia?
-loss of memory for events and information, including information pertaining to personal identity
What is continuous amnesia?
-loss of memeory that begins at a specific tiem, continues through to the present, and prevents the retention in ememory for new experiances.
What is systenmized amnesia?
-the loss of memory for a certain category of information
What is anterograte amnesia?
-the inability to recall events that occurred after a trauma
What is retrograde amneisa?
-the inability to recall events that occurred before a trauma.
What is psychogenic?
-originating from the mind or caused by psychological factors
What is dissociative fugue?
-sudden and unexpected travel away from home accopanied by forgetting of one's past and personal identity
What is dissociative identity disorder?
-presence of two or more distinct personalities or identity states that recurrently control an individual's behavior
What are somatoform disorders?
-disorders in which phsycial symptoms are caused by psychological factors
What is the posttraumatic model?
-a theory of dissociative identity disorder that argues that the diroder results from traumatic childhood experiances
What is the sociocognitive model?
A theory of dissociative disorder that argues that the disorder is iatrogenic and/or that it results from socially reinforced multiple role enactments
What is iatrogenic?
- a disorder unintentially casued by a treatment
What is retrospective?
research based on participants' recall of infromation about events occurred in the past
What is recall bias?
bias based on distortion of mmeories for past events
What is rumination bias?
bias based on the fact that thinking about past events enhances the memory of such events
What is selection bias?
-bias based on researching nonrepresentative samples, such as when studies only investigate research subjects who already have the disorder in question and do not investigate a comparison group without the disorder
What is informational bias?
bias based on researchers only studying variables already believed to be related to the phenomena in question
What is investigator bias?
bias based on the influence of the researchers' expectations or preferances on the study's results
What is prspective?
research based on data that are collected as the events beign studied are occurring, rather than recalling them retrospectively
What is splitting?
-a defense mechanism in which one views the self or others as all-good or all-bad in orde to weard off conflicted or ambivalent feelings
What is identification?
-taking on the traits of someone else
-sometimes used as a defense mechanism
What is self-hypnosis?
- the ability to put oneself in a trance state
-may contribute to dissociative disorders according to some experts
What is state-dependent learning?
-learning and memory that depend onemotional state similarity between encoding and retrieval
What is schema-focused cognitive therapy?
a cognitive intervention for dissociative disorders that focuses on changing cognitive schemas that are based on traumatic childhood experiances
What is narcosynthesis?
-the use of medication to promote therapeutic remembering
-used durign World War II to help soldiers remember forgotten traumatic incidents
What is multi-modal?
- a treatment strategy that integrates a variety of theoretical perspecitives
What is anorexia nervosa?
A disorder involvinh extreme thinness, often achieved through self=starvation
What are elctrolytes?
charged molecules that regulate nerve and muscle impulses throughout the body
Whata re restricitng type anorexia?
anorexia in which the indivdual loses weight by severely restricitng food intake
What is binge-eating/purging type anorexia?
Anorexia in which the individual loses weight by bingeing and purging
What is bulimia nervosa?
A disorder involving repeated binge eating followed by compensatory measures to avoid weight gain
What is purging type bulimia?
bulimia in which individuals try to avoid weight gain from binges by physically removing ingested food from their bodies, usually through vomiting or the use of laxatives
What is nonpurging type bulimia?
-bulimia in which individuals try to avoid weight gain from binges by buring off calories, usually through fasting or engaging in excessive excercise
What is eating disorder not otherwise specified?
-The DSM-IV-TR diagnoses for eating behaviors that are disordered but do not meet diagnostic criteria for either anorexia or bulimia
What is subclinical?
-the presence of symptoms at levels below the full diagnotic criteria for a disorder
What is reverse anorexia?
-a condition, usually affecting mem, that involves excessive worry that muscles are too small and underdeveloped
What is obesity?
The condition of being 20% or more over ideal weight
What is enmeshed?
-families in which boundaries b/t members are weak and relationships tend to be intrusive
What is catastrophizing?
-a cognitive distortion involving the tendecy to view minor problems as major catastrophies
What are endorphins?
brain chemicals that reduce pain and produce pleasurable sensations
-sometimes referrred to as the body's "natural opioids"
What is binge drinking?
a dangerous practice of rapid alcohol consumption, defined as four or more drinks ina row for women or five or more drinks in a row for men
What is denial?
-defense mechanism in whcih an individual fails to acknowledge an obvious reality
What is substance abuse?
-The DSM-IV-TR diagnosis for substance use that has negative consequences
What is substance dependence?
-The DSM-IV-TR diagnosis for substance use that is compulsive, out of control, and has negative consequences including physical dependence on the substance
What is tolerance?
The body's adaptation to a substance as indicated by the need for increased amounts of the substance to acheive the desired effect or obtaining less effect in response to using the same amount over time
What is withdrawal?
-physcial or psychological symptoms that occur when substance use is decreased or stopped
What is polysubstance abuse?
The misuse of three or more substances
What is dual diagnosis?
-the coexistance of a substance use diagnosis and another Axis I or II diagnosis for a client
What are depressants?
-substances that slow CNS functions
What is alcoholism?
another term for alcohol dependence
What is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)?
a syndrome consisting of mental retardation, growth impairment, and facial distortions in a child caused by intrauterine alcohol exposure related to a mother's drinking during pregnancy
What are sedatives?
-substances used to promote relaxation
What are hypnotics?
-substances used to promote sleep
What is anxiolytic?
an anxiety-reducing effect
What is cross tolerance?
tolerance extending across drugs within a class
What is mescaline?
-a hallucingenic substance found in peyote
What is marijuana?
-the world's most widelyu used illegal substance
-derived from the cannibus plant
What is half-life?
-the amount of time it takes for half of a substance to be eliminated from the body
What is ecstasy (MDMA)?
a synthetic amphetamine/stimulent with some hallucinogenic properties
What is PCP?
-phencyclidine, a substance of abuse originally developed as an animal anesthetic
What is ketamine?
-a shorter-acting derivative of PCP still used as a anesthetic
What is GHB?
-Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, a so-called natural bodybuilding and sleep aid that has become a popular club drug
What are inhalents?
-chemicals that produce a "high" when inhaled
What are anabolic steroids?
-a synthetic subtype of steroids resembling testosterone that tend to increase muscle mass and are often abused with the aim of enhancing athetic performance or physique
What is self-medication?
-the abuse of substances to compensate for deficiencies in neurochemistry or to soothe unpleasant emotional states
What is the flipped switch theory?
-the hypothesis that continued use of a substance can precipitate a biologically based switch from controlled use to addiction
What is substitution (or maintainance) therapy?
The practice of a providing opioid addicts with a substitute opioid ina safe, medically monitored setting
What s network therapy?
-a treatment for substance misuse that emphasizes engagement of the client's social network of friends and family in treatment
What is codependency?
-A relationship in which family member(s) unconsciously collude with the substance misuse of another memeber even though they may consciously oppose it
What is tension reduction?
-a behavioral explanantion of substance misuse based on the ability of drugs to relieve distress (negative reinforcement)
What is covert sensitization?
-behavioral intervention involving pairing unpleasant emotional images with unwanted behaviors, such as drug use
What is contingency management?
-the use of reinforcements and punishments to shape behavior in adaptive directions
What is cognitive restructuring?
-therapy techniques that focus on changing irratinal and problematic thoughts
What is alexithymia?
-profound difficulty in identifying and verbalizing emotions
What is the twelve-step method?
-a popular self-help approach to substance misuse problems based on the twelve-step recovery process of Alcoholic Anonymous
What is ego-dystonic homosexuality?
-a DSM-III diagnosis, since eliminated, that referred to homosexuality that was distressing and unwanted by the client
What are sexual dysfunctions?
-DSM-IV-TR disorders involving persistent problems with sexual interest, sexual arousal, or orgasm
What are paraphilias?
-DSM-IV-TR disorders involving persistent sexual desires or preferances that are considered abnormal
What is hypoactive sexual desire?
-persistently deficient sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity causing distress or interpersonal difficulty
What is sexual aversion?
-persistent extreme aversion to, and avoidance of, genital sexual contact with a sexual partner causing distress or interpersonal difficulty
What is female sexual arousal disorder?
-Persistent inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement, causing distress or itnerpersonal difficulty
What is the male erectile disorder?
-persistent inability to attain, or maintain, an adequate erection, causing distress or interpersonal difficulty
What is the female orgasmic disorder?
-persistent delay in or absense of, orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase, causign distress or interpersonal difficulty
What is the male orgasmic disorder?
-persistent delay in, or absense of, orgasm following a normal sexual excitment phase, causing distress or interpersonal difficulty
What is premature ejaculation?
-persistent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on, or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing distress or interpersonal difficulty
What is vaginismus?
-persistent involuntary spasm of the musculature of the outer third of the vagina that interfers with sexual intercourse, causing distress or itnerpersonal difficulty
What is dyspareunia?
-persistent ghenital pain associated with sexual itnercourse, causing distress or itnerpersonal difficulty
What is exhibitionism?
-recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the exposure of one's genitals to an unsuspecting person
What is voyeurism?
-recurrent, intese sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the act of observing an unsuspecting person who is naked, in the process of disorbing, or engaging in sexual activity
What is fetishism?
-recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors invovling the use of nonliving objects
What is Transvestic fetishism (or transvestism)?
-recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving cross-dressing in a heterosexual male
What is sexual masochism?
-recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the act of beign humilated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer
What is sexual sadism?
-recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving acts which the psychological or physcial suffering of the victim is exciting to the person inflicting the suffering
What is pedophilia?
-recurent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child or children
What is frotteurism?
-recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person
What is countertransference?
-the therapist's feelings about the client
What is turning passive into active (identification with the aggressor)?
a defense mechanism ibnvolving doing unto others what was done to oneself
What is phallometric assessment?
measurements of penile responses to various stimuli
What is masturbatory satiation (or orgasmic recondtioning)?
a behavior treatment for paraphilias in whcih ther client masturbates to "normal" sexual stimuli in order to reinforce this behavior
What is chemical castration?
-a bilogical intervention for some paraphilias designed to supress testosterone levels
What is gender identity disorder(transseuxalism)?
a DSM-IV-TR disorder involving intense discomfort with one's biological sex and the desire to change it
What is gender?
-a person's psychological sense of beign male or female
What is temperment?
-inborn behavioral tendencies
What is a sex change (or sex reassignment)?
A treatment for gender indentiy disorder in which the clients body is altered through various means to conform with his or her gender identity