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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What IQ level is Mild Mental Retardation?
50-55 to 70
What IQ level is Mod Mental Retardation?
35-40 to 50-55
What IQ level is Severe Mental Retardation?
20-25 to 35-40
What IQ level is Profound Mental Retardation?
below 20-25
What is the greatest cause of MR?
Early alterations of embryonic development.
In one study, using early stimulation and training, what proportion of MR children moved into the mildly retarded range?
What % of MR is due to early alterations of embryonic dvpt?
How many diagnostic categories are there on the DSM-IV?
What are the 3 diagnostic criteria for MR?
1) Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning (IQ score of approx. 70 or below)
2) Concurrent deficits or impairments in adapative functioning in at least 2 areas
3) Onset prior to age 18
What % of MR is due to heredity?
What % of MR is due to pregnancy and perinatal probs?
What % of MR is due to environmtal factors and other mental DOs?
15 to 20%
Using early stimulation and training, what % of children with MR in one study had IQ scores that were raised to 70 and above?
What % of MR is due to general medical conditions during infancy or childhood?
Etiology of MR is unknown in _____ of cases?
30 to 40%
What are 3 examples of heredity implicated in MR?
Fragile X syndrome
What are 2 early alterations of embryonic dvpt implicated in MR?
Down Syndrome
Damage due to toxins
What are 3 pregnancy and perinatal problems implicated in MR?
Fetal malnutrition
What are 3 general medical conditions during infancy or childhood implicated in MR?
Lead poisoning
What environmental factors and other mental DOs are implicated in MR?
Deprivation of nurturance or stimulation
What percentage of MR is due to Down Syndrome?
10 to 30%
What level of MR is caused by PKU?
Mod to profound
What level of MR is caused by Down Syndrome?
Mod to severe
What IQ level is Borderline Intellectual Functioning?
71 to 84
If there are substantial deficits in adapative functioning, what IQ level could a person with MR have?
71 to 75
What is the range of IQ scores that ppl w/ Learning DOs typically have?
Average to Above Average range
What is the most frequent comorbid DO for those with Learning DO?
What % of those with Learning DO have ADHD?
20 to 25%
How much worse is the school dropout rate for adolescents w/ Learning DOs?
1.5 times average
At what age does stuttering typically begin?
2 to 7
How much more common is stuttering in males than females?
3 times
In what % of cases does stuttering remit spontaneously by the time the child is 16?
How many characteristic symptoms are req'd for dx of Autistic DO? Name the categories.
6 characteristic sxs
i.e., 2 from category 1 (impairmt in social interaction)
1 from category 2 (impairment in commun.)
1 from category 3 (restricted, repetitive, stereotyped beh, ints, and activities)
At what age does autism develop?
Before age 3
What proportion of autistic individuals remain mute throughout their lives?
What % of people with Autistic DO are mentally retarded?
Autism is _____ times more common in males than females.
4 to 5
What proportion of autistic individuals achieve some degree of partial independence as adults?
Name the 3 factors associated with best outcome for autistic indivs.
1) ability to commun. verbally by age 5 or 6
2) IQ over 70
3) later onset of sxs
What % of autistic indivs have EEG abnormalities?
40 to 65%
What % of autistic indivs have epilepsy?
20 to 35%
Which NTs are found to be at an abnormal level in autistic indivs?
Elevated 5HT levels have been found in _____% of people with autism.
The rate of Autistic DO is ___ times higher in siblings.
50 to 100
What are the 4 dxic criteria for ADHD?
1) Onset of sxs prior to age 7
2) Persistence of sxs for at least 6 months
3) Some deg of impairment in at lest 2 settings
4) Presence of at least 6 characteristic sxs of inattn or hyperactivity-impulsivity
What does ADHD combined type require?
6 or more symptoms of inattention AND 6 or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity
What proportion of ADHD children have academic difficulties?
Nearly all
What % of those with ADHD have reading or other learning disabilities?
25 to 30%
What proportion of those with ADHD have probs related to social adjmt?
ADHD is ______ times more common in boys than girls.
2 to 9
A more equal gender ratio is found among ADHD people with which type of ADHD?
Predominantly Inattentive Type
The rates of ADHD in adult males and females is _____
What % of children continue to have symptoms of ADHD as adults?
Up to 60%
Etiology of ADHD? Name 3.
1) genetic component
2) brain abnormalities
3) Behavioral disinhibition hypothesis
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) and other CNS stimulants have beneficial effects on ADHD's core sxs in about ____% of cases.
Motor and vocal tics and other movement abnormalities have been observed in _____% of hyperactive children taking stimulant drugs compared to ____% of children taking a placebo.
30 to 70%; 20%
The dx of Conduct DO requires how many symptoms over the course of what time?
The presence of at least 3 characteristic symptoms during the past 12 months.
Childhood-Onset Type of Conduct DO is dxed at what age?
Prior to age 10
Adolescent-Onset Type of Conduct DO is dxed at what age?
10 or later
What is a common co-diagnosis of ADHD?
Conduct DO
What are common co-diagnoses of Conduct DO?
Learning DO
Anxiety DO
Mood DO
What is a common precursor to Childhood-Onset Type Conduct DO?
The "life-course-persistent" type of Conduct DO is apparent by age ____.
Age 3
What are the rates of ODD in males and females?
Prior to puberty - more common in males
Thereafter - about equal.
How long must a person with Pica show persistent eating of nonnutritive substances without an aversion to food?
1 month
When is the onset of pica most likely to be?
Between 12 and 24 months.
Pica is frequently associated with ____.
Pica is sometimes found in what population?
Pregnant women.
What is the essential feature of Tourette's DO?
Presence of at least 1 vocal tic and multiple motor tics that may appear simultaneously or at diff times.
What age must tics appear for dx of Tourette's?
Prior to age 18
What is the most common associated sx of Tourette's DO?
Obsessions and compulsions.
What are other associated probs in those with Tourette's?
Hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility.
Antipsychotic drugs (haloperidol and pimozide) are effective in ____% of cases of Tourette's.
What is the essential feature of enuresis?
Repeated voiding of urine during the day or night into the bed or clothes at least twice a week for 3 or more months.
At what age is enuresis diagnosed?
When indiv has reached expected dvptal level or age when continence is expected and not due to GMC or use of substance (usually 5).
What is the essential feature of encopresis?
Repeated passage of feces into inappropriate places.
At what age is encopresis diagnosed?
Child must be chronological (or mental) age of at least 4 years.
The night alarm has been found effective for enuresis in ____% of cases.
What proportion of children exhibit some degree of relapse w/in 6 months of initial tx for enuresis?
Imipramine reduces wetting frequency in ____% of enuresis cases.
Imipramine suppresses wetting entirely in ____% of cases of enuresis.
What proportion of enuretic children relapse within 3 months after discontinuing Imipramine?
Most children.
Separation Anxiety DO's disturbance must last how long?
At least 4 weeks.
When is onset of symptoms of Separation Anxiety DO?
Before age 18.
How many characteristic behaviors must be present in Separation Anxiety DO?
What ages does school refusal typically appear?
5 to 7 years
11 to 12 years
14 years or older
What is the essential feature of Separation Anxiety DO?
Dvptally inappropriate, excessive anxiety related to sepn from home or attachmt figures.
What is the essential feature of Reactive Attachment DO?
Markedly disturbed and dvptally inapprop. social relatedness in most settings.
At what age must Reactive Attachment DO begin?
Prior to age 5
Diagnosis of Reactive Attachment DO requires evidence of _______.
Pathogenic care.