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40 Cards in this Set

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The presentation of a stimulus after a behavior to increase that behavior.
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
Must be given immediately and contingent. SR+
Primary Reinforcers: Unconditioned
(food, warmth, sleep, oxygen, thirst, pain, sex)
Secondary Reinforcers: Conditioned
(social - high 5s)

INCREASES BEHAVIOR
A vertical solid line in a graph that indicates when a change in treatment conditions occurred (e.g. separating baseline from intervention)
PHASE CHANGE LINE
In behavior analysis the intervention or treatment.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
When a reinforcer is delivered after the first response after a fixed amount of time has elapsed. This schedule produces a scalloped rate of response (low at first, and then gradually increases.
FIXED INTERVAL
SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT
FI 30 sec - Reinforce

Every 30 seconds, reinforment.
When a reinforcer is delivered after and average number of responses. This schedule produces a steady, very high rate of response with very brief, if any, pauses after reinforcement.
VARIABLE RATIO
SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT
VR2
Out of 8 sessions, reinforce 4x.

Better rates of responding.
Does not learn to anticipate.
A visual display of several reinforcers, from which a client may choose.
REINFORCER MENU
A menu may utilize pictures, written descriptions, or the actual items.
When a reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a fixed amount of time. The response is chosen because it is incompatible with another response that is a deceleration target behavior.
DRI

Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
Reinforcing incompatible behaviors reinforcing behavior that cannot occur (physically) at the same tie as the target behavior.
Ex. hands in pockets vs flapping. Physically incompatible.
When a reinforcer is delivered after the first response after an average amount of time has elapsed. This schedule produces a steady, medium rate of response with very brief, if any, pauses after reinforcement.
VARIABLE INTERVAL
SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT
VI 30 sec.

In 10 minutes. Reinforce 20x.
More effective than Fixed Interval Schedule of Reinforcement
A temporary increase of an undesired behavior, which initially occurs in the face of deliberate removal of reinforcement.
EXTINCTION BURST
Gradually increase reinforcement delay, and thin reinforcement schedules, during generalization training, as reinforcers are normally longer and less frequent in natural untrained environments.
INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT
Only sometimes maintain behavior over time.
A pre-intervention assessment that is used to refine recording procedures, design the intervention, and provide data with which to compare intervention data when evaluating intervention effects.
BASELINE
The gradual withdrawal of prompts, such that the SD alone comes to evoke the desired behavior.
FADING
Promotes generalization. Going from primary to conditioned.

Type of reinforcement
Meaning signaling the removal of the opportunity to earn reinforcement for a period of time, contingent on some behavior. It is used in an attempt to decrease behavior, and when successful, can be classified as a punisher.
TIMEOUT
"timeout from reinforcement"
Students goes from a reinforcing setting to a non reinforcing setting.
In order for time out to be effective TIME-IN must be very motivating.
Contraindicative with ESCAPE.
(bad effect)
Teaching a sequence of responses by initially training the first response of the chain, then the first and second first, second, third, etc.
FORWARD CHAINING
Teaching a skill from the first step to the last. - in sequences.
Teaches a complex behavior. Break the behavior into small components. Teach each step separately.
A reinforcer that is obtained by exchanging a token for it. Used in token systems.
BACK-UP REINFORCERS
Delay.

Back-ups should be part of the reinforcer menu.
Teaching a sequence of responses by initially training the last response of the chain, then the second to the last and the last, third to the last second to the last, and the last. etc.
BACKWARD CHAINING
Teaching the last step first.
Teaches a complex behavior. Break the behavior into small components. Teach each step separately.
Generalized conditioned reinforcers that when earned, can be exchanged for other reinforcers, or backup reinforcers.
TOKENS
Tokens are exchanged for back-ups.

INCREASES BEHAVIOR
Gradually changing the form, or topography, of a behavior by reinforcing successive approximations to the correct, final topography.
SHAPING
INCREASES BEHAVIOR
A reinforcer that is effective without previous experience. (e.g. food, drinks)
PRIMARY REINFORCER
Positive reinforcer.

Food, warmth, sleep, oxygen, thirst, pain, sex.
When a reinforcer is delivered when a response does not occur for a fixed amount of time.
DRO
Differential reinforcement of other behavior.
Catch them being good!
Reinforcing other appropriate behavior.
The removal of a stimulus after a behavior to increase that behavior.
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
Use of aversive stimuli.
Removal of a stimulus, that is often aversive, contingent upon a desired behavior in order to increase the probability of that behavior.
Ex. Seat belt
Following an extinction session, a temporary re-appearance of the behavior in the beginning of the next extinction session.
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY
A stimulus that 1) evokes behavior
2) because that behavior has been reinforced in the presence of the stimulus.
SD - Stimulus control
Signal - availability.
Hungry? Food sign = SD
Stimulus control speaks to the availability or absence of reinforcement. Different stimuli in the environment indicate different things for the learner. When the stimulus is consistently correlated with a consequence, stimulus control has been achieved.
Occurs when a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and that neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that can illicit a conditioned response.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Pavlov (1927)
NS > UCS > UCR (Needs no learning)
Bell/light > FOOD > Salivation
CS > CR (Learned Response) - Salivate with lights
Watson & Raynor's "Little Albert Ex"
Rabbit > Loud Noise > Startle
-- Generalization - Fear w. soft, furry things.
A behavior to be changed. Acceleration targets are those that are to be increased, deceleration targets are those to be decreased.
TARGET BEHAVIOR
When a task is broken up into smaller elements. The elements should be stated in their correct order.
TASK ANALYSIS
A stimulus that decreases or suppresses a behavior because that behavior has been punished in the presence of the stimulus.
SP (SD)
When a reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a fixed amount of time. The response is chosen because it is an alternative response to another response that is a deceleration target behavior.
DRA
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior.
Reinforcing alternative behaviors. Reinforcing a replacement behavior or a situation.
When a reinforcer is delivered after a fixed number of responses. This schedule produces a steady, high rate of response with pauses after reinforcement.
FIXED RATIO
Schedule of Reinforcement
FR2 - Reinforce every 2.
(punisher)
A consequence that increases (or decreases) the rate of behavior because it has been paired with another reinforcer,
CONDITIONED REINFORCER
Learned Response
In behavior analysis, the behavior of interest, expressed in some measure.

(e.g. rate, % correct, latency)
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Y axis.
The withholding of a stimulus that normally occurs after a behavior, resulting a decrease in the rate of the behavior. Includes sensory, escape and social.
EXTINCTION
DECREASES BEHAVIOR
An event that occurs after a behavior.
CONSEQUENCE
A. Increasing Behavior - REINFORCEMENT
B. Decreasing Behavior-
EXTINCTION and/or PUNISHMENT
An extra antecedent stimulus that is used to evoke a behavior, such that it can be reinforced.
PROMPTING
Strategy to teach new behaviors
Additional stimulus of cue that increases the probability that the target behavior will be exhibited.
Hierarchy of Prompts -
Dependent to Independent
Full Physical, partial physical, modeling, gestural, environmental cue, verbal.
An event that occurs before a behavior.
ANTECEDENT
A motivational operation is a condition of deprivation which:
- momentarily increases the value of a reinforcer
- evokes behavior that has produced that stimulus/reinforcer in the past
A kind of learning in which behavior is modified by changing its consequences.
OPERANT CONDITIONING
Consequences -
ABC's of Behavior
Antecedent- SD discriminative stimulus
Behavior - R - Response
Consequence - SR + SP
Reinforcing or punishing
The interaction of a person and his/her environment- the actions of the muscles and glands. A response is a single instance of a behavioral class.
BEHAVIOR
What maintains a behavior?
1. Socially mediated positive reinforcement - ATTENTION SEEKING - Tangibles
2. Socially mediated negative reinforcement - ESCAPE
3. Automatic Positive Reinforcement- SELF-STIM (doesn't interact with anyone)
4. Automatic Negative Reinforcement - PAIN
Decreasing the frequency of a reinforcer.
THINNING
PROMOTES GENERALIZATION
A theory that states high probability behavior can be used to reinforce low probability behavior, and low probability behavior can punish high probability behavior.
PREMACK PRINCIPLE
An activity preference hierarchy.
INCREASES BEHAVIOR
Activities - easiest to hardest should correspond with reinforcers, least preferred to most preferred.
A term that refers to a fixed-ratio (FR)1 schedule of reinforcement wherein every response produces a reinforcer.
CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT
CRF - Establishes new behaviors.
1:1 Correspondence.