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353 Cards in this Set

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Benefits of public speaking
Honing critical thinking and listening skills. Enhancing your career as a student. Accomplishing professional goals. Accomplishing personal goals. Exploring and sharing values. Expanding your participation in civic life.
Dyadic communication
a form of communication between two people, as in conversations.
Small group communication
involves a slamm number of people who can see nad speak directly with one another, as in a business meeting
Mass communication
occurs between a speaker an a large audience of unkown people. In mass communication the recievers of the message are not present with the speaker, or they are part of such an aimmense crowd that there can be little or no interaction between speaker and listener
Public speaking
a speaker delivers a message with a speicif purpose to an audience of people who are present during the delivery of the speech
Public speaking always includes...
a pseaker who has a reason for speaking, an audience that gives the speaker its attention, and a message that is meant to accomplish a specific purpose
Differences between public speaking and other forms of communication
oppurtunities for feedback. Level of preparation. Degree of formality
Feedback
listener response to a message. In public speaking middle of low and high feedback, audience offers verbal and nonverbal cues
Source
or sender, is the person who creates a message
Encoding
organizing the message, choosing words and sentence structure and verbalizing the message. it is the physical process of delivering the message
Receiver
the recipient of the source's message
Decoding
the process of interpreting the message
Audience perspective
try to determine the needs, attitudes, and values of your audience before you begin speaking
Message
is the content of the communication process: thought and ideas put into meaningful expressions
Channel
the medium through which the speaker sneds a message
Noise
Anything that interferes with the communication process between a speaker and an audience
Shared meaning
the mutual understanding of a message between speaker and audience
Rhetorical situation
includes anything that influences the speaker, the audience, the speech, the occasion, or the situation (context). Everything including past performances
Rhetorical proofs
various types of persuasive appeals
Ethnocentrism
the belief the ways of one's own culture are superior to those of other cultures
rhetoric
the practice of oratory
The canons of rhetoric
invention, arrangement, style, memory and delivery
Invention
refers to adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case
Arrangement
organizing the speech in ways that are best suited to the topic and the audience
Style
the way the speaker uses language to express the speech ideas
Memory
the practice of the speech until it can be artfully delivered
Delivery
the vocal and nonverbal behavior you use when speaking
Speechmaking process
Select a topic. Analyze the audience. State the speech purpose. Compose a thesis statement. Develop the main points. Gather supporting materials. Seperate the speech into its major parts. Outline the speech. Consider presentation aids
Demographic characteristics
ratios of males to females, racial and ethical differences represented in the group, noticeable age variations, and proportion of the group that is from out of state or out of the country
Audience analysis
a highly systematic process of getting to know your listenersrelative to the topic and the speech occasion
Specific purpose
an explicit statement, stated as a declarative sentence, of what you expect the speech to accomplish for the audience
General purpose
Inform, persuade or mark a special occasion
Thesis statement
clearly expresses the central idea of your speech. It concisely identifies, in a single idea, what the speech is about
How many main points should you organize your speech around
two or three
Main points
primary pieces of knowledge (in an informative speech) or the key arguments in favor of your position (in a persuasive speech) that you want the audience to understand
Introduction
serve to introdue the topic and speaker adn to alert audience members to your specific speech purpose
Conclusion
restates the speech purpose and reiterates how the main points confirm it, also thank listeners for thier time and attention
Coordinate point
equal importance, parallel alignment
Subordinate
given less weight than the main points they support and are placed to the right of points they support
the principle of coordinationa and subordination
placement of ideas relative to thier importance to one another
Circular response
continual flow, or feedback, between speaker and listener
Listening
the conscious act of recognizing, understanding, and accurately interpreting the messages communicated by others
Hearing
the physiological process of percieving sound
Selective perception
people pay attention selectively to certain messages and ignore others
Factors that influence what we listen to and what we ignore
We pay attention to what we hold to be important, we pay attention to information that touches our experiences and backgrounds, and we sort and filter new information on the basis of what we already know
Active listening
focused, purposeful listening. It is a multistep process of gathering and evaluating information
Listening distraction
anything that competes for attention that you are trying to give to something else
Scriptwriters
people who may find themselves thinking about what they, rather than the speaker, will say next
Defensive listening
usually occurs when we sense that our attitudes or opinions are being challenged
What active listeners do
set listening goals, listen for main points, and watch for the speaker's nonverbal cues
Critical thinking
the ability to evaluate claims on the basis of well-supported reasons.
What Critical thinkers do
Evaluate the evidence, analyze assumptions and biases, assess an argument' logic, resist false assumptions, overgeneralizations, either-or thinking and other fallacies in reasoning, consider multiple persepectives (even more than two) and summarize and judge
Valid generalization
supported by different types of evidence from different sources, and does not make claims beyond a reasonable point
Overgeneralizations
unsupported conclusions
How to criticize or evaluate a presentation in a constructive way
Start off by saying something positive, focus on the speech, not the speaker and target your critism
Ethics
the study of moral conduct- how people should act toward one another
Ethincs in public speaking
the responsibilities speakers have toward their audience and themselves, it also encompasses the responsibilities listeners have toward speakers
Ethos
meaning "character". Audiences listen to and trust speakers if they demonstrate positive ethos (positive character).
Positive ethos includes
competence (demonstrated by the speaker's grasp of the subject matter), good moral character (reflected in speaker's trustworthiness, straightforwardness, and honest presentation of the message), goodwill (demonstrated by the speaker's knowledge and attitude of respect toward the audience and the particular speech
Speaker credibility
speakers are trusted if they have a sound grasp of the subject, display sound reasoning skills, are honest and unminipulative and are genuinely interested in the welfare f thier listeners
Ethics
the study of moral conduct- how people should act toward one another
Ethincs in public speaking
the responsibilities speakers have toward their audience and themselves, it also encompasses the responsibilities listeners have toward speakers
Ethos
meaning "character". Audiences listen to and trust speakers if they demonstrate positive ethos (positive character).
Positive ethos includes
competence (demonstrated by the speaker's grasp of the subject matter), good moral character (reflected in speaker's trustworthiness, straightforwardness, and honest presentation of the message), goodwill (demonstrated by the speaker's knowledge and attitude of respect toward the audience and the particular speech
Speaker credibility
speakers are trusted if they have a sound grasp of the subject, display sound reasoning skills, are honest and unminipulative and are genuinely interested in the welfare f thier listeners
First amendment
plays a pivotal role in enforcing safeguards by guaranteeing freedom of speech
Free speech
the right to be free from unreasonable constraints on expression
Fighting words
speech that provokes people to violence
Slander
defamatory speech
Defamatory statement
one that potentially harms an individual's reputation at work or in the community
Values
our most enduring judgements or standards of what's good and bad in life, of what's important to us
Terminal values
desirable ends in themselves; you can think of them as end states or states of being (a comfortable lifestyle, an exciting life)
Instrumental values
valued characteristics that people can possess (ambitious, broadminded)
Dignity
feeling worthy, honored, or respected as a person
Integrity
refers to incorruptibility- the ability to avoid compromise for the sake of personal expediency (slanting facts in your favor)
Trustworthiness
a combination of honesty and dependability. Includes revealing your true purpose to your audience, not using misleading, diseptive, or fasl information, and achnolowledging sources
Respect
treating people right, addressing audience members as unique human beings and refraining from rudeness and other forms of personal attack. Focus on issues rather than on personalities, allow the audience the power of rational choice, and avoid in-group and out-group distinctions
Jargon
specialized terminology
Hate speech
the ultimate vahicle for promoting in-group and out-group distinctions. It is any offensive communication- verbal or nonverbal- that is directed against people's racial, ethnic, religious, gender, or other characterisitcs
Responsible public speaker considers...
the topic and purpose, evidence and reasoning, accuracy, and honest use of emotional appeals
Rule for avoiding plagerism as a public speaker
any source that requires credit in written form should be acknowledged in oral form
Common knowledge
information that is likely to be known by many people, but such information must truly be widely disseminated.
Factors that underlie the fear of addressing an audience
lack of public speaking experience, feeling different from members of the audience, and uneasiness about being the center of attention
Pre-preparation anxiety
some people feel anxious the minute they know they will be giving a speech
Preparation anxiety
when they begin to prepare for the speech
Pre-performance anxiety
when they rehearse their speech
Performance anxiety
most pronouces duringthe introduction phase of the speech
Strategies for getting started with confidence
Modify thoughts and attitudes, visualize success, use relaxation techniques, depersonalize the speech evaluation and seek pleasure in the occasion
Visualization
Highly successful way to reduce nervousness and help you prepare effectively for your speech
Relaxation techniques
stress-control breathing (need to feel more movement in the stomach than in the chest), natural gestures, and freedom to walk
Audience analysis
the process of gathering and analyzing information about your listeners with the explicit aim of adapting your message to the information you uncover
Attittudes
reflect a predisposition to respond to people, ideas, objects or events in evaluative ways. If we have a positive attitude toward reading, for example, we're likely to read
Beliefs
Attitudes are based on beliefs- the ways in which people percieve reality. They are our feelings about what is true. W
Difference between attitudes and beliefs
attitudes deal with the felt quality of some activity or entity ("Reading is good" or "God is good), beliefs refer to our level of confidence about the very existence or validity of something ("I believe God exists" of "I am not sure God exists")
Values
both attitudes adn beliefs are shaped by values- people's most enduring judgements about what's good and bad in life. Values are more general than attitudes or beliefs. They are more resistent to change
Perspective-taking
is critical in seeing things from your listener's point of view
Target audience
those individuals within the broader audience whom you are most likely to influence in the direction you seek
Demographics
are the statisitical characteristics of a given population. Age, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status, religious and political affiliation, and gender
Co-culture
social community whose perceptions and beliefs differ significantly from yours
Individualism versus collectivism
Individualistic cultures tend to emphasize the needs of the individual rather than those of the group. In collectivist cultures personal identity, needs and desires are viewed as secondary to those of the larger group. US-indivualistic
High uncertainty versus low uncertainty
Uncertainty aviodance refers to the extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguity. High-undertainty avoidance cultures tend to structure life more rigidly and formally for thier members, while low-uncertainty avoidance cultures are more accepting of uncertainty in life and therefore allow more variation in individual behavior. US: lowest uncertainty avoidance
High power distance versus low power distance
Power distance refers to the exten to which a culture values social equality versus tradition and authority. Cultures with high levels of power distance tend to be organized along more rigidly hierarchial lines, with greater emphasis placed on honoring authority. Those with low levels of power distance place a higher value on social equality. US: a little above midpoint range
Masculine versus Feminine
The masculinity and femininity dimension refers to the degree to which a culture values traits that it associates with masculinity and with femininity. Dominant values in US weighted toward masculinity
Socioeconomic status
Income, occupation and education
Close-ended questions
designed to elicit a small range of specific answers supplied by the interviewer
Fixed alternative questions
contain a limited choice of anwers, such as yes, no or sometimes
Scale questions
measure the respondents level of agreement or disagreement
analyzing the speech setting
Size of the audience and physical setting, time and length of speech, seating capacity and arrangement, sound and lighting, the speech context (the rhetorical situation, ex: you may be thrid speaker, might preced someone more well known than you)
General speech purpose
"Why am I speaking on this topic for this particular audience and occasion?" To inform, persuade or mark a special occasion
Informative speech
to increase the audience's understanding and awareness of a topic
Persuasive speech
is to effect some degree of change in the audience
Special occasion speech
are prepared for a special occasion and for a purpose dictated by that occasion
Specific speech purpose
zeroes in more closely than the general speech purpose on the goal of the speech.
Thesis statement
the theme or central idea f the speech stated in the form of a single, declarative sentence
Supporting material
illustrates or clarifies a point in a speech, elaborates on an idea and substantiates or proves that a statement is correct.
brief examples
offer a single illustration of a point
Extended examples
offer multifaceted illustration of the idea, item, or event being described, therby getting the point across and reiterating it effectively
Hypothetical examples
example of what you think the outcome will be, something that could happen in the future if certain things occured
Narratives
story, they tell tales, both real and imaginary, about practically anything under the sun
Anecdotes
breif stories of interesting, humorous, or real-life incidents
testimony
firsthand findings, eyewitness accounts, and opinions by people, both lay (nonexpert) and expert
Expert testimony
includes any findings , eye witness accounts, or opinions by professionals who are trained to evaluate or report on a given topic
Lay testimony
testimony by nonexperts
Facts
represent documented occurrences, including actual events, dates, times, people involved, and places
Statistics
summarized data that measure the size or magnitude of something, demonstrate trends, or show relationships
Descriptive statistics
describe things (ex. there are too many of these)
Inferential statistics
help to predict things (ex. based on this we could expect this)
Primary research
original or first-hand research, such as interviews and surveys conducted by you or the speaker
Secondary research
the vast world of information gathered by others
Interview
a face-to-face communication for the purpose of gathering information
Vague question
dont give the person being interviewed enough to go on
Leading question
encourages, if not forces, a certain response and reflec the interviewer's biases
Loaded question
phrased to reinforce the interviewer's agenda
Nuetral question
dont lead the interviewee to a desired response
Opening of interveiw
creating a positive intitial impression is critical to establishing a spirit of collaboration in the interview setting
The body of an interview
here you will pose your substantive questions
The closing of an interview
exit gracefully, check notes, give interveiwee oppurtunity to finalize his or her remarks
Database
a searchable place, or "base," in which information is stored and deom which it can be retrieved
Library of Congress call number or Dewey decimal number
libraries organize thier books and other holdings according to these
Periodical
a regularly published magazone or journal
Encyclopedias
summarize the knowledge that is found in original form elsewhere
General encyclopedias
truly encyclopedic: they attempt to cover all important subject areas of knowledge
Specialized encyclopedias
delve deeply into one subject area such as religion, science or art
Almanacs
or fact books, can find facts and statistics that support your topic
APA
American Psychological Association
Search engines
index the contents of the web
Crawler-based search engines
use powerful software programs that "crawl" the Web, automatically scanning millions of documents that contain the jeywords and phrases you command them to search
pay-for-placement search engines
allows advertisers to bid on popular search terms that are relevant to their site, with the top position going to the highest bidder
Individual search engines
compile thier own databases of Web pages, ex. Google
Meta-search engines
scan a variety of individual search engines simultaneously, ex. dogpile
Specialized search engines
devoted entirely to your topic
Human directory
aka subject directory is a searchabel database of Web sites that have been submitted to the directory and then assigned by an editor to an appropriate category or categories
Hybrid search engines
combine crawler based search engine results with results from a human directory
Gateway
a human directory that contains at least 100 sites that have been reviewed by an expert
library gateway
an electronic antry point into a large collection of research and reference material that have been selected and reviewed by librarians
Subject specific database (vortal)
subject specialists, including but not limited to librarians, point to specialized databases created by professors, researcher, experts, governmental agencies, buisness interests, or other subject specialists and individuals who have a deep interest in a particular field and have accumulated and complied Web links to it
Invisible Web
the portion of the web that includes pass-protected sites, documents behind firewalls, and the contents of proprietary databases
Boolean operators
words placed between the keywords in a search that specify how the keywords are related, ex. AND, OR, NOT
Main points
express the key ideas and major themes of the speech
Supporting points
represent the supporting material or evidence you have gathered to justify the main points and lead the audience to accept the purpose of the speech
A well organized speech is characterized by:
unity, coherence, and balance
Unity
a speech exhibits unity when it contains only those points that are implied by the purpose and thesis statement
Coherence
refers to clarity and logical consistency. It is organized logically, adhere to principle ofcoordination and subordination
Balance
suggests that appropriate emphasis or wieght be given to each part of the speech relative to the other parts and to the theme. Assign each main point at least two supporting points
Signposts
aka conjunctions or phrases such as next, first, finally, when moving between supporting points
Restate-forecast form
the transition restates the point just convered and previews the point to be covered next
Rhetorical question
transitions can be restated as rhetorical question, or questions that do not invite actual responses. Instead, they make the audience think
Internal preview
this transition is often used in speech introductions to describe what will be covered in the body of the speech
Internal summary
draws together important ideas before proceeding to another speech point. often used in speech conclusions
Topical pattern of arrangement
When each main point of a topic is of relatively equal importance, and when these points can be presented in any order relative to the other main points without changing the message, a topical pattern of arangement (aka categorial pattern) may be the most appropriate way to arrange your main points
Chronological pattern of arrangement
aka temporal pattern, follows the natural sequential order of the main points
Spatial pattern
When the purpose of your speech is to describe or explain the physical arrangement of a place, a scene, or an object, logic suggests that the main points be arranged in order of thier physical proximity or direction relative to each other
Causal (cause-effect) pattern of arrangement
the speaker relates soemthing known to be a cause to its effects
problem-solution pattern of arrangement
main points organized to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and then to provide justification for a proposed solution
Narrative pattern of arrangment
the speech consists of a story or a series of short stories, replete with characters, setting, and a plot
Circle pattern of arrangement
speaker develops one idea, which leads to another, which leads to another, which leads to a third and so forth until he or she arrives back at the pseech thesis
Functions of the introduction
arouse audience attention and willingness to listen, preview the topic and purpose of speech, establish bond with audience, establish the speaker's credibility to address the topic, motivate the audience to accept the speaker's goals
Functions of the conclusion
signal to the audience that the speech is coming to an end and provide closure, summarize the main points, reiterate the thesis or central idea of the speech, challenge the audience to respond (challenges audience members to use what they have learned in a way that benifits them
call to action
speaker challenges listners to act in response to the speech, see the problem in a new way, change thier beliefs about the problem, or change both their actions and their beleifs about the problem.
Style
is the specific word choices and rhetorical devices (techniques of luangage) speakers use to express their ideas in order to achieve their speech purpose
Colloquialisms
regional variations in expressions
Biased language
any language that relies on unfounded assumptions, negative descriptions, or stereotypes of a given group's age, class, gender, disability, and geographic, thnic, racial or religious characterisitcs
Conciseness
encourages a clear understanding of the speaker's message. use fewer than more words and shorter sentences.
Contractions
shortened forms of the verb to be and other auxilary verbs in conjunction with pronouns (I, he, she, you) and proper nouns (names)
Concrete language
specific, tangible, and definite
Abstract language
language that is general or nonspecific...ex. old, bad, short, thing, good, late, new
Figures of speech
include similes, metaphors, and analogies
Simile
explicitly compares one thing to another, using like or as to do so. ex. he works like a dog
Metaphor
compares two things by describing one thing as actually being the other. ex. love is a rose
Analogy
simply an extended metaphor or simile that compares un unfamiliar concept or process to a more familiar one to help the listener understand the unfamiliar one.
Understatement
drawing attention to an idea by lowering its importance
Irony
Using humor, satire, or sarcasm to suggest a meaning other than the one that is actually being expressed
Allusion
Making vague or indirect refernce to people, historical events, or concepts to give deeper meaning to the messahe
Hyperbole
Using obvious exaggerations to drive home the point
Onomatopeia
the imitation of natural sounds in the word form; it adds vividness to the speech
Malapropism
the inadvertent use of a word or a phrase in place of one that sounds like it
Denotative meaning
of a word is its literal, or dictionary, definition.
Connotative meaning
of a word is the special association that different people bring to bear on it
Voice
the feature of verbs that indicates the subject's relationship to the action. A verb is in the active voice when the subject performs the action. A verb is in the passive voice when the subject is being acted upon or is the reciever of the action.
Hedges
unnecessary words and phrases that qualify or introduce doubt into statements that should be straighforward. ex. i guess my question is...
tag questions
unnecessary questions that are appended to statements or commands. ex. it was too expensive, wasnt it. or it was too expensive, or at least i thought so
Anaphora
the speaker repeats a word or a phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or sentences. ex saying im going to talk about twice in sentences on after the other
Alliteration
repitition of the same sounds, usually consonants, in two or more neighboring words or syllables. ex. down with dope up with hope
Hackneyed
if alliteration is poorly crafted or hackneyed it can distract from, rather than enhance, a message
parallelism
the arrangement of words, phrases, or sentences ina simialr form. ex, numbering points first, second and third. state relevant dates
Antithesis
the speaker sets of two ideas in balanced (parallel) opposition to each other to create a powerful effect. ex. one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind
Traids
combination of three elements may be natural to a speech. ex. of the people, by the people and for the people.
Qualities of effective delivery
natural, enthusiastic, confident and direct (eye contact being one way to be direct and build a rapport with your listeners
elocutionary movement
the elocutionists regarded speechmaking as a type of performance, much like acting. delivery was empasized to such an extent that it often assumed more importance than the content of the speech. today it is the content that is seen as beign most important
Speaking from a manuscrpit
involves reading a speech verbatim-that is, from prepared written text (either on paper or ona teleprompter) that contains the entire speech, word for word.
Oratory
speaking from memory
Speaking impromptu
unpracticed, spontaneous, or improvised
Speaking extemporaneously
falls between impromptu and written or memorized deliveries. You prepare well and practice in advance, giving full attention to all facets of the speech-content, arangement, and delivery alike. You speak from an outline of key words or phrases
Volume
the relative loudness of a speaker's voice while giving a speech. The volume for speeches is somewhat louder than that of normal conversation
Pitch
range of sounds from high to low (or vice versa). Number of vibrations per unit of time
Intonation
the rising and falling of voice pitch across phrases and sentences
Vocal fillers
uh, hmm, you know, I mean, and its like
Pauses
enhance meaning by providing a type of punctuation, empahsizing point, drawing attention to a key thought, or just allowing listeners a moment to contemplate what is being said
Vocal variety
varying all elements-volume, pitch, rate and pauses
Pronunciation
the correct formation of word sounds ex. effect stated as uh-fect is wrong
Articulation
the clarity or forcefulness with which the sounds are made, regardless of whether they are pronounced correctly. ex. mumbling or lazy speech
Mumbling
slurring words together at a very low level of volume and pitch so that they are barely audible
Lazy speech
ex. gonna instead of going to
Aural channel
made up of vocalizations that form and accompany spoken words. include qualities of volume, pitch, rate, variety and pronounciation and articulation
Paralanguage
refers to how something is sadi, not to what is sad
The visual channel
includes the speaker's phusical actions and appearance-facial expressions, gestures, general body movement, physical appearance, dress, and objects held
how nonverbal and verbal communication work together in a speech
nonverbal communication clarifies the meaning of verbal messages, facilitates feedback, creating a loop of communication between speaker and audience, helps establish a relationship between speaker and audience, and helps establish speaker credibility
talking head
remains steadily positioned in one place behind a microphone or a podium
presentation aids
include objects, models, pictures, graphs, charts, video, audio, and multimedia
Functions of presentation aids
help listeners process and retain information, promote interest and motivation, convey information concisely, and lend a proffesional image
Prop
any live or inanimate object. ex. snake or stone, that captures audience's attention and illustrates or emphasizes key points
model
three-dimensional, scale-size representation of an object
pictures
two-dimensional representations of people, places, ideas, or objects produced on an opaque backing. ex. photograps, diagrams, maps, and posters
Daigram
aka schematic drawing. explains how something works or how it is contructed or operated. Simplify and clarify complicated procedures, explanations and operations
Map
a representation of a whole or a part of an areas on a flat surface
poster
a large, bold, two-dimensional design incorporating words, shapes, and if desires, color placed on an opaque backing. Convey brief message or point forcefully and attractively
Graph
represents numerical data in visual form
Line graph
displays on measurement, usually plotted on the horizontal axis, and units of measurement or values, which are plotted on the vertical axis. good for trends, easier to read
bar graph
bars of varying lengths to compare quantities or magnitudes
pie graph
depicts the division of the whole
Pictogram
shows comparisons in picture form. The pictures represent numerical units and are drawn to relate to the items being compared. ex. actual little person stands for 100 people.
Chart
visually organizes complex information into compact form
flowchart
diagram that shows step-by-steo progression through a procedure, a relationship, or a process. ex. using arrows
organizational chart
illustrates the organizational structure or chain of command in an organization, It shows the interrelationships of the different positions, division, departments, and personnel ex. tree diagram
Table
systematic grouping of data or numerical information into column form
multimedia
combines several media (stills, sound, videa, text and data) into a single production. More senses evoked, the more memorable
LCD
liquid crystal diode, LCD display technology widespread. ex laptop screens, digital watches
LCD panel
connects to a computer, is a square, thin box that sits on top of an overhead projector.
LCD projector
comes with an illumination ro light source, which eliminates the need for an overhead projector
Video projector
used in large meeting rooms or auditoriums. connect to a computer and project an image as large as twenty-five feet long. Sharp, large image through three lenses (red, green, blue)
flip chart
large pad of paper on which a speaker can illustrate speech points
handout
page-size items that convey information that is either impractical to give to the audience in another manner or intented to be kept by audience members after the presentation
eight-by-eight rule
dont use more than eight words per line and eight lines per slide
Typeface
specific style of lettering, such as Arial, Times New Roman, or Courier
Fonts
Typefaces come in a variety of fonts, or sets of sizes (called the point size) and upper and lower cases
Serif typefaces
include small flourishes, or strokes, at the tops and bottoms of each letter. easier on the eye
Sans serif typefaces
are more blocklike and linear; they are designed without these tiny strokes. good for small amounts of text, such as headings
guideline for point type
Titles or major headings are 36-point type, subheadings should use 24-point type, and regular text should be 18-point type
Meeting minder
powerpoint note-taking tool that allows you to take notes and give assignments known as "action item" in the middle of a presentation
pointer
in powerpoint allows you to show parts of a slide show during your presentation; pointer options include an arrow and a pen that can be controlled by the mouse
Ways of presenting information
definition, description, explanation, and demonstration
Operational definition
defines something by describing what it does. a computer is something that processes information
Definition by negation
defines something by explaining what it is not. ex. courage is not the absence of fear
Definition by example
defines something by providing examples of the subject under discussion. ex. health proffesional include doctors, burse, EMTs.
Definition by synonym
defines something by comparing it with another term that has an equivilant meaning. ex. a friend is a comrade or a buddy
Definition by etymology
aka word origin. is the account of a word's history. You illustrate the roots of the term in question
description
provide array of details that paint a mental picture of your topic
explanation
speeches relying on explanation provide reasons or causes and demonstrate relationships
demonstration
explaining how something works or actually demonstrating it
speeches about objects
discuss anything that isnt human, it can be animate, as in the animal kingdon, or inanimate as in skis or skates
speeches about processes
refer to a series of steps that lead to a finished product, how something is done, how it is made or how it works. ex. microbrewing
speeches about concepts
focus on abstract or complex ideas or theories and attempt to make them concrete and understandable to the audiecne
Speeches about issues
and issue is a problem or a matter in dispute, one that people seek to bring to a conclusion. ex. cloning animals
persuasion
the process of influencing attitudes, beliefs, values, and behavior
Persuasive speaking
speech that is intented to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values and acts of others
forms of rhetorical proofs
three means of persuasion
Logos
appeals to audience reason, persuasive appeals directed at the audience's reasoning ona topic. Such appeals make considerate use of arguments
arguments
stated positions, with support for or against an idea or issue.
Syllogism
three-part argument consisting of a major premise, or general case; minor premise, or specific case; and a conclusion. Syllogisms are a form of deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
reasoning from a general condition to a specific instance
hasty overgeneralization
an attempt to support a claim by asserting that a particular piece of evidence (an isolated case) is true for all individuals or conditions concerned
Enthymeme
syllogism presented as a probability rather than as an absolute, and it states either a major or minor premise but not both. Premise not stated is presented as an implication
pathos
requires creating a certain disposition in the audience, appealing to listeners' emotions.
demagogue
relies heavily on irrelevant emotional appeals to short-circuit the listeners' rational decision-making process
propaganda
aims to amnipulate an audience's emotions for the purpose of promoting a belief system or dogma
Ethos
the nature of the speaker's character and personality also plays an important role in how well the audience listens to and accepts the message, the moral character
elements of a an ethos-based appeal
good sense (competence), moral character, goodwill toward the audience
for persuasion to succeed, message must effectively target...
the audience members' needs; thier underlying motivations for feeling and acting as they do; and their likely approach to mentally processing the persuasive message
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
basis for motivation-oriented persuasive speeches. maslow maintained that each person has a set of basic needs ranging from the esential, life-sustaining ones to the less critical, self-improvement ones
Maslow's five categories from bottom to top
Physiologial needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem need, self-actualization needs
physiological needs
the need for basic substinance, including food, water, and air
safety needs
the need to feel protected and secure
social needs
the need to establish and maintain lasting, meaningful relationships with others
self-esteem needs
the need to feel good about ourselves-that we matter and that we are worthwhile
self-actualization
the need to reach our highest potential, to achieve what we with to accomplish; to reach the goals that we have set for ourselves
Expectancy-Outcome Values Theory
each of us consciously evaluates the potential costs and benefits (or "value") associated with taking a particular action
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion
each of us mentally processes persuasive messages by one of two routes, depending on the degree of our involvement in the message, central or perphiral processing
Central processing
when we are motivated and able to think critically about the content of a message, we engage in central processing of the message
Peripheral processing
when we lack motivation (or the ability) to pay close attention to the issues, we engage in peripheral processing of information. listener is then unlikely to experience any meaningful changes in attitudes or behavior
speaker credibility
expertise, trustworthiness, speaker similarity, and physical attractiveness
argument
stated position, with support for or against an idea or issue
core elements of an argument
claim, evidence, and warrants
claim
states the speaker;s conclusion, based on evidence, about some state of affairs
evidence
substantiates the claim
warrants
provide reasons that the evidence is valid, or supports the claim
three types of claims
fact, value and policy
claims of fact
persuasive speeches based on claims of fact focus on whether something is or is not true or whether something will or will not happen, address questions for which two or more controversial, competing answers exist, or those for which answers do not exist yet
speculative claims
the other kind of question of fact addresses questions for which answers are not available yet
claims of value
address issues of judgment. Rather than attempting to prove the truth of something a speaker tries to show that something is right or wrong, good or bad, worthy or unworthy. Evidence is more subjective than factual
claims of policy
used when recommending that a specific course of action be taken, or approved of, by an audience. A claim of policy speaks to an "ought" condition, proposing that certain better outcomes would be realized if the proposed condition was met
Motivational warrants
use the needs, desires, emotions, and values of audience members as the basis for accepting some evidence as support for a claim, and thus accepting the claim itself
Authoritative warrants
appeals to credibility, relies on an audience's beleifs about the credibility or acceptibility of a source of evidence. ex. saying to give money because some celebrity does
Substantive warrants
appeals to reasoning, they operate on the basis of the audience's beliefs about the reliability of factual evidence. types: causation, sign and analogy
Warrant by cause
offer a cause-and-effect relationship as proof of the claim
Warrants by sign
infer that such a close relationship exists between two variables that the presence or absence of one may be taken as an indication of the presence or absense of the other. ex. smoke is a sign of fire, coughing and sneezing are signs of a cold
Warrants by analogy
compare two similar cases and infer that what is tru in one case is true in the other
Inoculation effect
by anticipating counterarguments and then addressing or rebutting them, you can "inoculate" your lsiteners against the "virus" of these viewpoints
logical fallacy
an invalid or deceptive line of reasoning
begging the question
fallacy in which an argument is stated in such a way that it cannot help but be true, even though no evidence has been presented. ex. "war kills"
bandwagoning
speakers phrase arguments as if they were true because "general opinion" supports them. ex. nikes are superior because everyone wears nike
either-or-fallacy
poses an argument in terms of two alternatives only, even thoug there may be many aditional arguments to be made
ad hominem argument
targets a person instead of the issue at hand in an attempt to incite an audience's dislike for an opponent
red herring
in this fallacy, the speaker relies on irrelevant information for his or her argument. The premises of an argument are irrelevant to the conclusion
comparative advantage pattern of arrangement
speaker aranges main points to demonstrate a series of advantages assocaited with his or her claim versus an alternative position or positions
Refutation pattern of organization
points are arranged as a series of rebuttals of opposing claims, softens the reservations of the hostile audience and those that strongly disagree, as well as the critical and conflicted audience
Narrative organizational pattern, persuasive speech
frame speech as a story, good for sympathetic audience
topical pattern of arrangement, persuasive speech
good fro uninformed, less educated, or apthetic audience
Monroes motivated sequence pattern of arrangement
five-step process that begins with arousing listeners' attention and ends with calling for action
MMS: step one
Attention, addresses listeners' core concerns, making the speech highly relevant to them
MMS: step two
Need, isolates and describes the issue to be addressed
MMS: step three
satisfaction. introduce your proposed solution to the problem
MMS: step four
Visualization. provide the audience with a vision of anticpated outcomes associated with the solution
MMS: step five
Action. involves making a direct request of the audience, ask audience members to act according to their acceptance of the message
special occasion speech
one that is prepared for a specific occasion and for a purpose dictated by that occasion, the occasion gives rise to the speech content
commemoration speeches
focus on rememberance and tribute
social agenda-setting
establishing or reinforcing the goals and values of the group sponsoring the event. ex fund raisers, campaign banquets, conferences
Speech of introduction
short speech with two goals: warm up the audience for the speaker, and motivate audience members to listen to what he or she has to say
four elements of introduction speech
speaker's background, the subject of the speaker's message, the occasion and the audience
speeches of acceptance
in response to recieving an award of some sort
factors of the acceptance speech
prepare, react guenuinly and with humility, thank those giving you the award, thank other that helped you
Speeches of presentation
to communicate the meaning of the award and to explain why the recipient is recieving it
Factors of the speech of presentation
convey the meaning of the award, talk about the recipient of the award, consider the physical presentation of the award
Roasts
a humerous tribute to a person, one in which a series of speakers jokingly poke fun at him or her
Toast
brief tribute to a person or an event being celebrated
Factors of roasts and toasts
prepare, highlight the remarkable traits of the person being honored, be positive, be brief
Eulogy
derives from the word to praise, usually given by close friends and family members of the deceased
Factors of euologies
balance delivery and emotions, refer to the family of the deceased, commemorate life- not death, be positive but realistic
After-dinner speeches
take place around te time of a meal (not necessarily dinner though)
factors of the after-dinner speech
recognize the occasion, avoid stand-up comedy, the purpose of some of these speeches is social agenda-setting
canned speeches
one that the speaker uses again and again in different settings (speech unrelated to the event that has given rise to it)
sermons
inspirational speeches given by ministers, rabbis, priests, and mllahs
speech of inspiration
seeks to uplift the memebrs of the audeince and to help them see things in a positive light
Factors of speech of inspiration
use real-life stories, be dynamic, make your goal clear, consider a distinctive organizing device, ex. acronyms, close with a dramatic ending