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120 Cards in this Set

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12. What is the purpose of installing spacers in a computer case?
To keep the motherboard from touching the case and shorting out
13. Name three sources where you might find information on where to connect the front leads.
Labels on the motherboard, sticker on inside of case, motherboard documentation, manufacturer Web site
14. Which drive cable has a twist in it, and why?
The floppy drive cable has a twist in it to identify drive A.
15. Give one advantage of not installing drive cables until after the motherboard is installed in the case.
So that the drive cables will not be in the way when you are trying to install the motherboard
16. Why should you use short screws when securing drives?
So that the screws will not pierce the drive housing
17. List two or more features of the motherboard used in this chapter that might make it difficult to upgrade.
Sound and modem logic built into the board, and support for only one processor
20. If you have an IDE hard drive and a SCSI hard drive on the same system, from which drive will your system attempt to boot first?
IDE
18. What is the purpose of tying power cords and cables together before closing the computer case?
So that they will not interfere with other components and so that it will be easier to work with components inside the case
19. What is the purpose of the skirt on the video card in this installation?
To keep the video card from being forced into the wrong kind of slot
20. Name the component that fits around the AGP slot and helps to stabilize the video card.
Retention mechanism
1. Using the rule “trade good for suspected bad,” describe how to easily troubleshoot a video problem.
Exchange the suspected bad monitor for one you know is good. If that doesn’t help, try exchanging the video card.
2. Give five possible questions that should be asked of a user who is experiencing computer problems.
What procedure was taking place at the time? What had just happened? What recent changes did the user make? When did the computer last work? What has happened in the meantime? What error messages did the user see?
3. What is the best way to document intermittent problems?
Keep a log of when the problems appear and exactly what error messages occur.
4. Using Windows, list the steps to get a printed screen of an error message.
· For simple DOS systems, the Print Screen key directs the displayed screen to the printer.
· In Windows, the Print Screen key copies the displayed screen to the Clipboard.
· Launch the Paint software accessory program and paste the contents of the Clipboard into the document. You might need to use the Zoom Out command on the document first. You can then print the document with the displayed screen, using Paint. You can also paste the contents of the Clipboard into a document created by a word-processing application such as Word.
5. Starting with the easiest procedures, list five things to check if your PC does not boot.
· Make sure everything is plugged in and all cable connections are solid.
· Boot into Safe Mode and eliminate customized configuration in the OS.
· Boot from the bootable rescue disk.
· Eliminate any unnecessary hardware devices.
· Disconnect the network card, CD-ROM drive, mouse, and maybe even the hard drive
6. As a help-desk technician, list some good detective questions to ask if the user calls to say, “My PC won’t boot.”
What is the nature of the problem? Does the problem occur before or after the boot? Does an error message display? Does the system hang at certain times? Start from a cold boot and do whatever you must do to cause the problem to occur. What are the specific steps you took to duplicate the problem?
7. List one or two preventive maintenance measures that help protect each of the following: computer case, CMOS setup, floppy drive, hard drive, keyboard, mouse, printer, and software.
Inside the case · Make sure air vents are clear.· Use compressed air to blow the dust out of the case, or use a vacuum to clean vents, power supply, and fan.· Ensure that chips and expansion cards are firmly seated.· Clean the contacts on expansion cards.
CMOS setup · Keep a backup record of setup (for example, using Norton Utilities or CMOS Save).
Floppy drive · Only clean the floppy drive when the drive does not work.
Hard drive · Perform regular backups.· Automatically execute a virus scan program at startup.· Defragment the drive and recover lost clusters regularly.· Don’t allow smoking around the PC.· Place the PC where it will not be jarred, kicked, or bumped.
Keyboard · Keep the keyboard clean.· Keep the keyboard away from liquids.
Mouse · Clean the mouse rollers and ball.
Monitor · Clean the screen with a soft cloth.· Make sure air vents are clear
Printers · Clean out the dust and bits of paper, using compressed air and a vacuum. Small pieces of paper can be removed with tweezers.· Clean the paper and ribbon paths with a soft, lint-free cloth.· Don’t re-ink ribbons or use recharged toner cartridges.· If the printer uses an ozone filter, replace it as recommended by the manufacturer
Software · If directed by your employer, check that only authorized software is present.· Regularly delete files from the recycle bin and \Temp directories.
Written record · Keep a record of all software, including version numbers and the OS installed on the PC.· Keep a record of all hardware components installed, including hardware settings. · Record when and what preventive maintenance is performed.· Record any repairs done to the PC.
8. List at least three things that should be done before moving or shipping a computer.
· Back up the hard drive
· Remove any floppy disks, tape cartridges, or CDs from the drives.
· Turn off power to the PC and all other devices.
· Disconnect all power cords and external devices.
· Label cables and cable connections.
· Coil all cords and secure them with twist ties or rubber bands.
· Pack all components in their original boxes or in similar boxes with sufficient packing material.
9. How do you properly dispose of a battery pack from a notebook computer? A broken monitor? A toner cartridge from a laser printer?
Battery pack from notebook computer: return to original dealer or take to a recycling center.
Broken monitor: Check with local county or environmental officials for laws about disposal. Take to recycling center if available. In all cases, discharge monitor before disposing of it.
Laser toner cartridge: Return to dealer or manufacturer to be recycled.
10. What class fire extinguisher is used for electrical fires?
Class C
8. Assume that you are shopping for a new personal computer. Answer the following questions to help in making the best buying decision.
a) What is the intended purpose or purposes of the computer?
b) What functions must the computer have to satisfy each intended purpose?
c) What hardware and software components are needed to perform each function?
d) For each hardware and software component, what is one question that you want answered about the component before you make your decision?
[Student answers to question may vary widely. Below is example.]
The intended purpose of the computer is Windows software development. The computer needs to be able to support standard software and hardware that users of software developed on it might have. It must also be able to run development software, have a comfortable keyboard and mouse for long hours of work, and support a removable high-capacity storage device for easy transfer and storage of developed software. A good warranty and service plan to guarantee minimal downtime is also necessary. Questions about components might include upgradability and standardization.
11. Why was the 25-pin SCSI connector developed? What is the problem with its use?
The 25-pin SCSI connector was developed in an effort to make the connector smaller. The problem with its use is that it too closely resembles the 25-pin serial connector.
12. If you have any wide SCSI devices on your system, the cable from the host adapter must have a ___-pin connector.
68
What types of termination are used for single-ended cables? for differential?
Passive terminators, active terminators, and FPTs are all used with single-ended SCSI cables. Differential cables use either HVD or LVD terminators
14. How does active termination improve upon passive termination?
Passive terminators use simple resistors. Active terminators add voltage regulators, enabling use of faster speeds and longer cabling distances. Active terminators are also more reliable
15. Which version of SCSI introduced SCAM compliance?
SCSI-3
16. Why is it more expensive to add peripheral devices to a SCSI subsystem than with IDE?
Fewer devices are made with SCSI technology. Also, SCSI devices are generally considered to be of higher quality.
17. How do you set SCSI device IDs if your host adapter is not SCAM-compliant?
Using jumpers or rotary dials (or another type of switch) on the device itself
18. What might happen if a SCSI bus is not properly terminated?
Electrical noise and data might reflect and echo over the chain, causing interference with data transmission.
19. What problems might you experience with low-quality SCSI cabling?
Degradation of data and higher interference
21. When installing a SCSI hard drive, why should you set your system BIOS to “No Drives Installed”?
Most BIOS supports only IDE drives. If you tell the system that no drives are installed, it will attempt to boot from another device such as a SCSI drive.
22. What would be different about performing a hard drive to tape backup with IDE devices and with SCSI devices?
With IDE devices, the interchange of data would have to pass through the CPU. In a SCSI subsystem, two devices can communicate without going through the CPU.
23. How is the LUN related to the SCSI ID?
LUNs are used to identify multiple logical devices within a single physical device. A single physical device has only one SCSI ID but can have a number of LUNs. A SCSI ID and LUN can be written like this: 5:4. This would indicate a SCSI ID of 5 and a 4 for the fourth logical device within that physical device (such as a tray in a CD changer).
24. How is a SCSI hard drive similar to an IDE hard drive? How is it different?
Both SCSI and IDE drives have their controllers mounted inside the drive housing and can have a variable number of sectors per track. SCSI hard drives have an additional chip and a different kind of data connection and are generally considered to be of higher quality because of better performance, decreased data access time, and higher rotational speed.
25. How would three jumpers be set to indicate SCSI ID 6?
On, on, and off
1. What are the advantages of buying a well-known, brand-name computer?
· After-sales technical support and service
· Better warranty
· Updated drivers or utilities, troubleshooting, and documentation available online from manufacturer
2. What are the advantages of buying a less-expensive PC clone?
· Parts less likely to be nonstandard and proprietary
· May be easier to service and upgrade than a brand-name PC
· Can be less expensive to purchase and maintain, due to the proprietary parts and/or the cost of brand-name service
16. When you are isolating a printer problem, what are the four major possible sources of the problem?
· The application attempting to use the printer
· The OS and printer drivers
· Connectivity between the PC and the printer
· The printer itself
3. List three reasons why it may be wise to build your own PC. List three reasons, other than fear, why you may not want to build your own PC.
Pros:
· Great learning experience
· Rite of passage to becoming a PC technician
· Ability to choose all components and customize the PC
· Documentation for each component more likely to be available than for prebuilt PC
· Availability of original software floppy disks or CDs
Cons:
· Will probably not save money
· Takes time
· No overall warranty on PC
· Concerns about compatibility of components
· Possibility of encountering problems in assembly process
4. Why is it necessary to match your AGP video card to your motherboard AGP slot?
Because there are more than one type of AGP slot and the video card must match the slot
5. What is one reason to install drives before installing the motherboard?
If the motherboard is installed before the drives, there is the danger of dropping the drives on the motherboard.
6. What rule must be followed when attaching drive cables?
Look on each drive for a small 1 that indicates pin 1 and align that with the colored edge of the data cable for that drive. Look for pin 1 labeled on the motherboard.
7. What is the purpose of the thermal compound placed on top of the processor?
To conduct heat from the CPU to the heat sink
9. If the floppy drive cable were installed with the edge color opposite pin 1 instead of next to it, what would be the result?
The floppy drive would not work
10. Why is it a good idea not to put the case cover back on right after you’ve installed all the internal components?
It is better to test the computer before replacing the case cover in order to confirm that all internal components were installed correctly.
11. What might happen if you rock an expansion card back and forth while inserting it?
You might widen the insertion holes, making the card not fit correctly.
10. What are the two basic types of cabling for SCSI? How are they similar, and how are they different?
Single-ended and differential. In single-ended cables, one of the wires carries voltage and the other is a ground, and in differential cables, both wires carry voltage and the signal is calculated to be the difference between the two voltages.
13. What are two ways that printer drivers are installed on a remote computer accessing a printer shared by another computer on the network?
You can perform the installation using the printer drivers installed on the host PC or you can perform the installation using the drivers on CD (either the Windows CD or printer manufacturer CD).
14. When would you want to enable Capture Printer Port when installing a network printer?
To associate a network printer with a printer port to satisfy a DOS application
15. What company developed PostScript? PCL?
Adobe Systems, Hewlett Packard
17. Using Windows 98, what is the mkcompat.exe utility used for?
To troubleshoot and solve problems that may make an application incompatible with a certain version of Windows
18. How can you eliminate the printer as the source of a printing problem?
Check these things:
· Is the printer turned on and online?
· Is the correct printer selected as the default printer?
· Can an applications software program other than the current program use the printer?
· Is the printer using the correct driver? Does the driver need updating? Is the driver correctly installed?
· Can you move the printer to another computer and print from it? Will another printer work on this computer?
19. How can you be sure that a printer cable is not the source of a printer problem?
· Check that the cable is firmly connected at both ends.
· Remove the switch box in older systems that use one to share a printer.
· Try a different cable.
· Try printing using the same printer and printer cable, but a different PC.
· Enter CMOS setup of the PC and check how the parallel port is configured. Try setting the port to bidirectional.
20. Why is it important to not remove ink cartridges from an ink-jet printer and leave the cartridges outside the printer for an extended period of time?
The cartridges will dry out
1. What is the difference between narrow SCSI and wide SCSI?
Narrow SCSI has an 8-bit data bus, and wide SCSI has a 16-bit data bus.
2. Name at least three advantages of using SCSI over IDE.
More devices on the same system, higher rotational speed, lower seek time, better performance in general, only 1 IRQ required for entire SCSI chain instead of 1 for each device in IDE, faster data transfer (on the SCSI bus), support for multitasking, ability for two or more devices to operate simultaneously
3. Can you mix single-ended and differential devices on a SCSI subsystem? Why or why not?
It is possible but not recommended because they transfer data in different ways. Even with adapters, incompatible connections between single-ended and differential signals can damage both the host adapter and the devices attached to it.
4. Which SCSI standard introduced SPI?
SCSI-3
5. What is SCAM, and how does it make device installation easier?
SCAM (SCSI Configuration AutoMatically) is a method by which SCSI devices and the host adapter can be Plug and Play. This simplifies the installation process and eliminates the need to set jumpers or rotary dials on non-SCAM-compliant devices.
6. To what SCSI ID number should the host adapter be set for narrow SCSI?
Some host adapters come factory-set to the highest SCSI ID.
7. How many devices can wide SCSI support, not including the host adapter?
15
8. What are the two most common standards for SCSI device drivers?
ASPI (Advanced SCSI Programming Interface) and CAM (Common Access Method)
9. With what type of device would you use a 25-pin connector? a 50-pin? a 68-pin? an 80-pin?
25-pin: Narrow SCSI
50-pin: Narrow SCSI
68-pin: Wide SCSI
80-pin: Some hot-swapping drives
11. What two Windows components are used to share resources on a network and access those shared resources?
Client for Microsoft Networks and File and Printer Sharing
12. List the steps to share a local printer with others in the workgroup.
Click Start, Settings, Printers. In the Printers window, right-click the printer you want to share and select Sharing from the shortcut menu.
11. How do you solve the problem when a Windows XP notebook hangs after a PC Card has been removed while the notebook was in sleep mode?
Update the notebook with the latest Windows XP service pack
12. What type of SO-DIMM has 72 pins? 144 pins? 160 pins?
FPM and EDO SO-DIMMs with a 32-bit data path have 72 pins. EDO and SDRAM SO-DIMMs with a 64-bit data path have 144 pins. SO-RIMMs with a 64-bit data path have 160 pins.
13. List ten devices that a notebook manufacturer might consider to be field replaceable units.
Possible answers: Memory, hard drive, LCD panel, CPU, motherboard, keyboard, PC Card socket assembly, CD-ROM drive, floppy drive, sound card, pointing devices, AC adapter, battery pack, and DC controller
14. Why is understanding the warranty on notebooks so important?
Because some warranties are void if you make certain changes to the system, such as upgrading or replacing a hard drive.
15. What is the purpose of a DC controller on a notebook?
It converts voltage to the CPU core voltage.
16. What happens if the battery on your PDA discharges?
You lose all the data and applications on the PDA.
17. What are the two most popular operating systems currently used by PDAs?
Pocket PC (sometimes called Windows CE) and Palm OS
18. What are the advantages of Palm OS over Pocket PC?
Palm OS is less complex, easier to use, and is considered the best choice if the PDA is only to be used for simple tasks such as using e-mail, an address book, or a calendar.
19. What are the advantages of Pocket PC over Palm OS?
Pocket PC is considered to be a more versatile OS that can better be used to download and run applications similar to those supported by Windows, such as Microsoft Word or Excel.
20. List the ways that a PDA can synchronize with a PC.
A PDA can synchronize with a PC through its universal cradle, cable, and USB or serial connection to the PC. Special synchronization software might also be required. Some PDAs can also synchronize with a desktop or notebook computer through wireless technology, using either an embedded transmitter or an add-on device.
1. List the six steps used by a laser printer to print a page.
· Cleaning. The drum is cleaned of any residual toner and electrical charge.
· Conditioning. The drum is conditioned to contain a high electrical charge.
· Writing. A laser beam discharges the high charge down to a lower charge, only in those places where toner is to go.
· Developing. Toner is placed onto the drum where the charge has been reduced.
· Transferring. A strong electrical charge draws the toner off the drum onto the paper. This is the first step that takes place outside the cartridge.
· Fusing. Heat and pressure fuse the toner to the paper.
2. Which document exhibits better quality, one printed with 600 dpi or one printed with 1200 dpi? Why?
1200 dpi. The more dots per inch there are, the more detail can be printed and the resolution is finer.
3. What are two possible settings in CMOS for parallel port mode?
ECP or bidirectional
4. During the laser printing process, what determines when the toner sticks to the drum and when it does not stick to the drum?
During the writing phase, the uniform high charge is discharged only in the places where toner is meant to stick to the drum.
5. Why is it less expensive to maintain an ink-jet printer that has a black ink cartridge than one that does not?
If an ink-jet printer does not have a black ink cartridge, then it produces black by combining all colors of ink to produce a dull black. Having a separate cartridge for black ink means that it prints a true black and, more importantly, does not use the more expensive colored ink. You can replace the black cartridge without also replacing the colored ink cartridge.
6. What technology makes an ink-jet printer a photo-quality ink-jet printer?
The ability to mix different colors of ink to create a new color that then makes a single dot. HP calls this PhotoREt II color technology.
7. What should you do if an ink-jet printer prints with missing dots or lines on the page?
Clean the ink-jet nozzles (manually for older ink-jet printers or automatically for newer ones)
8. What can you do to help a dot-matrix printer last longer?
Keep the print head cool.
9. List two possible ways to improve printing speed.
Lower the printer resolution and the print quality, add more memory to the printer, add more memory to the PC, or upgrade the PC’s CPU.
10. When a laser printer is short on memory, what is a possible symptom of this problem?
Printing is slow, an error occurs, or a portion of the page does not print
18. What protocol is commonly used to manage the connection between a broadband converter box and a PC?
PPPoE
19. What Windows 98 and Windows XP component can be used to share an Internet connection with other computers on the LAN?
Internet Connection Sharing
20. Label the component parts of this URL: http://www.companyabc.com/Reports/ december2001.doc
HTTP is the protocol, www is the host name, companyabc.com is the name of the network, www.companyabc.com is the fully qualified domain name, Reports is the folder where the requested file is located, and december2001.doc is the name of the requested file.
21. Give the type of organization that would use the following top-level domains: .mil, .net, .air, .com, .org, .gov.
.mil—Military
.net—Internet provider or network
.air—Aviation industry
.com—Commercial institution
.org—Nonprofit organization
.gov—Government institution
22. What are three things you can do to improve slow browser performance?
Delete temporary Internet files, clear the history of recently visited Web sites, and reduce the days IE keeps pages in history. For Netscape, clear the disk cache. You can also suppress downloading images.
23. What protocol is used for sending e-mail? For receiving it?
SMTP is used for sending e-mail, and POP is used for receiving it.
24. Explain what FTP is used for
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is used to transfer files over a network. The two computers involved in the transfer do not have to be using the same operating system. It can be initiated from a command prompt or from FTP software.
25. What is defined in RFC1156? RFC822?
SNMP, SMTP
1. How are notebooks different from desktop PCs?
Notebooks use the same technology as PCs but with modifications so as to use less voltage, take up less space, and work when on the move.
2. Why are notebooks usually more expensive than PCs with comparable power and features?
Notebooks cost more than desktop PCs with similar features. They use thin LCD panels instead of CRT monitors for display, compact hard drives that can withstand movement even during operation, and small memory modules and CPUs that require less voltage than regular components. In general, it costs more to make similar components that take up less space and require less power.
3. List notebook support features available in Windows 98, Windows 2000, and Windows XP
Windows 98—Multilink Channel Aggregation, ACPI support, power management improvements over Windows 95, improved support for PC cards, and Microsoft Exchange.
Windows 2000—Hibernate mode, Offline Files, improved battery support, hot-swapping of IDE drives and external floppy drives, and folder redirection
Windows XP—improved power management features over earlier versions of Windows, and hardware profiles
4. What are four types of memory devices or modules used in a notebook?
72-pin SO-DIMMs, 144-pin SO-DIMMs, 160-pin SO-RIMMs and credit card memory
5. What type of monitor does a notebook use?
A notebook uses a thin LCD panel instead of a CRT monitor for display.
6. What is the thickness of a Type I PC Card? Of a Type III PC Card?
Type I cards can be up to 3.3-mm thick and are primarily used for adding RAM to a notebook PC. Type III cards can be up to 10.5-mm thick, which is large enough to accommodate a portable disk drive.
7. What term refers to a PC Card you can remove and replace without powering off?
Hot-swappable
8. What two services must an OS provide for a PC Card to work?
A socket service and a card service
9. What is the small cord sometimes found on the end of a PC Card called?
A dongle or a pigtail
10. What applet in the Windows 2000 Control Panel do you use to stop a PC Card before removing it? In Windows 98?
Add/Remove Hardware applet, PC Card applet
4. Which protocol used by Web browsers and Web servers is responsible for guaranteeing delivery? For breaking data into packets? For decrypting and decompressing data as necessary?
TCP, IP, HTTP
5. Explain the difference between a connection-oriented protocol and a connectionless protocol, and give an example of each.
A connection-oriented protocol establishes a session before sending data. A connectionless protocol sends data without establishing a session first and without being concerned with whether the data is received.
6. What TCP/IP utility would you use to display the route taken over the Internet by a communication between a Web browser and Web server?
Tracert
7. What utility would you use to display information about the name space information kept by a DNS server for a particular domain name?
NSLookup
8. Explain the functions of the following TCP/IP utilities: NSLookup, Winipcfg, Ipconfig, and Microsoft SNMP agent.
NSLookup—Requests information about domain name resolutions from the DNS server zone’s data
Winipcfg—Displays IP address and other configuration information in a user-friendly window. (Not available under Windows 2000
Ipconfig—Displays the IP address of the host and other configuration information.
Microsoft SNMP Agent—Provides system management for networks; allows a system manager to monitor connections to computers running Windows 98 with SNMP Agent.
9. What is the full command line to use Ipconfig to release the current IP address?
IP config /release
10. What utility new to Windows XP can be used to display a NIC’s MAC address?
Getmac
11. What must you do to get your system ready for creating a dial-up networking connection?
Install a modem as well as drivers to control the modem
12. If TCP/IP is bound to a modem on your system, does it also need to be bound to a network card? Why, or why not?
If TCP/IP is bound to a modem, it does not need to be bound to a network card because the modem will act as a network card and provide a connection to the network
13. Explain how PPP is used by dial-up networking
Dial-up networking works by using PPP to send packets of data over phone lines. The network protocol packages the data, making it ready for network traffic, and then PPP adds its own frame to these packets.
14. Place these stages of creating a dial-up networking connection in Windows 9x in the correct order: creating a new connection, verifying installation of the dial-up adapter, installing the Dial-up Networking feature, entering configuration information for your ISP
Install the Dial-up Networking feature, verify installation of the dial-up adapter, create a new connection, and enter configuration information for your ISP
15. How is the process for creating a new dial-up connection in Windows 2000 different from the process for Windows 9x?
Windows 2000 uses more wizards for the process of creating a new dial-up connection than Windows 9x does.
16. Explain at least four different things you can try if you cannot make a connection to the Internet using a dial-up networking connection.
· Check the user ID, password, and dial-up networking icon for errors.
· Try dialing the number manually from a phone, or try another number.
· Check Device Manager for reported errors about the modem.
· Print out and compare Modemlog.txt for the unsuccessful connection attempt and a successful connection on another computer.
· Verify that all components are installed, and try removing and then reinstalling them.
· Reboot the PC and try again.
· Search for and rename old copies of Winsock.dll, which may be interfering with the current directory. (Do not rename the one in \Windows\System.)
17. What should you try if you can connect but you get the error message “Unable to resolve hostname...”? If you get the error message “Unable to establish a compatible set of network protocols”?
For “Unable to resolve hostname…”, in Dial-up Networking Properties, make TCP/IP the only network protocol allowed, check the IP addresses of the DNS servers, make sure “Using the default gateway” is selected, and try NOT selecting IP header compression.
For “Unable to establish a compatible set of network protocols….”, verify that the dial-up adapter and TCP/IP are configured correctly, remove and reinstall TCP/IP and reboot, put the Windows 9x PCs in a different workgroup, and compare PPPlog.txt for the unsuccessful connection and a successful connection.
1. Explain how a single physical computer can be a Web server and an e-mail server at the same time.
Server functions can be controlled by software, and a single physical computer can be running more than one type of server software simultaneously. Programs on client PCs access the different servers running on the same machine through the use of port numbers assigned to the different server types.
2. Give the service and protocol for the following ports: port 21, port 25, port 80, and port 110
Port 21 is used for FTP (using FTP); port 25 is used for sending e-mail (using SMTP); port 80 is used for Web browsers and the World Wide Web (using HTTP); and port 110 is used for receiving e-mail (using POP3).
3. What are API calls used for? Why are they necessary?
When an application wants to send data to a counterpart application on another host, it makes an API call to the operating system, which handles the request. The API call causes the OS to generate an HTTP request.