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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Skeletal muscle
– striated, voluntary control, long, cylindrical, multinucleated
Cardiac muscle
– striated, involuntary control, branched, short, uni or binucleated
Smooth muscle
– not striated, involuntary control, short, spindle shaped
Movement
– movement; blood through heart; food, urine, others by smooth muscle
Postural maintenance
– constant adjustments being made by skeletal muscle
Joint stability
– as mentioned in previous chapter
Heat generation
– skeletal muscle most important in this respect
Excitability (irritability)
– the ability to receive and respond to stimuli
Contractility
– the ability to shorten forcibly
Extendibility
– muscle can stretch beyond resting size when relaxed
Elasticity
– the ability to return to its resting length after being stretched
Endomysium
– fine layer of areolar connective tissue; surrounds each muscle fiber
Perimysium
– collagenic sheath which surrounds bundles of muscle fibers
Fascicles
– name of the bundles of muscle fibers surrounded by the perimysium
Epimysium
– course sheet of fibrous connective tissue; surrounds the entire muscle
Deep fascia
– fibrous connective tissue; binds separate muscles into functional groups
Direct
– epimysium to the bone (periosteum) or cartilage (perichondrium)
Indirect
– more frequent method; epimysium continues beyond the muscle it covers
Tendon
– when this continuation is cord like
Aponeurosis
– when this continuation is sheet like
Muscle fiber
– cell, very thick and very long (30 cm)
Sarcolemma
– special name given to the plasma membrane of muscle fibers
Sarcoplasm
– name given to the cytoplasm of muscle fibers
Myoglobin
– oxygen binding molecule similar to hemoglobin
Glycogen
– to provide all the energy needed
Myofibrils
– cylindrical structures, make up muscle fibers; ability to contract
Bands
– the different bands of the myofibrils line up; muscle fiber as a whole, striated
A band
– the darker bands
H zone
– middle portion of the A band which is slightly lighter then the rest
M line
– slightly darker line which runs in the middle of the H zone
I band
–the lighter bands
Z disc
– slightly darker disc seen in the middle of the I bands
Sarcomere
– the functional unit; the part of the myofibril between two Z discs
Myofilaments
– two types; make up sarcomere
Thick filaments
– also the darker of the two filaments
Myosin
– hundreds form a single thick filament
Head
– each myosin; two globular ends; binds to actin during contraction
ATPase –
head of each myosin; it provides the energy for the contraction
A band
– the darker band is the result of arrangement of these thick filaments
H zone
– part of A band not overlapped by thin filaments
M line
– slightly darker because of fine strands; hold adjacent thick filaments together
Thin filaments –
the lighter thinner microfilament
Actin
– G actin; looks like a twisted string of pearls
Myosin binding site –
found on each molecule of G actin
Tropomyosin
– two strands; spiral along the light filament block myosin binding sites
Troponin molecules (complex)
– holds the tropomyosin in place when muscle fiber is
Z disc
– coin shaped protein sheet, anchors thin filaments together, joins sarcomeres
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
– smooth ER; surrounds a myofibril with interwoven tubules
Terminal cisternae
– perpendicular chambers (pair) where the I and A bands meet
Calcium ion
– stores calcium and releases it when the muscle cell is stimulated
T(transverse) tubules
– extensions of sarcolemma; through the cytoplasm; extracellular
Impulse
– stimulated and impulse runs along the sarcolemma and down the T tubules
Triads
– three membranous structures; terminal cisterna, T tubule, terminal cisterna
Somatic motor fibers
– axons in nerves; bodies in brain or spinal cord
Motor unit
– one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers stimulated by it
Synapse
– the functional connection between nerve and its target cell
Neuromuscular junction
– when target cell is muscle fiber; synapse called
Axonal terminal
– axon branches with each branch terminating in an axonal terminal
Neuromuscular junction
– several axonal terminals to the same muscle fiber
Synaptic cleft
– glycoprotein filled space between axonal terminal and muscle fiber
Motor end plate –
highly folded depression in the muscle fiber found
Acetylcholine receptors –
millions of receptors found on the folds of motor end plate
Nerve impulse –
travels down the membrane of the axon
Calcium channels
– voltage regulated; impulse reaches; open and calcium floods in
Calcium influx –
as a result of calcium channels opening
Synaptic vesicles –
contained in the axonal terminal
Acetylcholine
– in the vesicles
Exocytosis –
calcium; acetylcholine containing vesicles fuse with plasma membrane
Depolarization
– chemically activated sodium channels opened; become less negative
Action potential
– great enough; voltage dependent sodium channels open; propagating
Repolarization
– immediately follows depolarization wave
Potassium ion channels
– open, potassium moves out; resting membrane potential
Refractory period
– time it takes for repolarization, muscle fiber cannot be stimulated
Na+,K+ ATPase
– restore normal ionic conditions; sodium out, potassium in
All-or-none response
– action potential propagated along entire fiber or not at all