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69 Cards in this Set

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Ana =
“apart” + tomy (from tome) = “to cut” Literally: “to cut apart”, but popularly: the study of structures, their arrangement and their relationships
Physi =
“work” or “nature” + -logy = “the study of” Literally: “the study of work, but popularly: the science of body functions; that is, how the structures of the body work.
Four non-invasive techniques associated with the clinical application of Anatomy and Physiology are
inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation
Principle of Complementarity of Anatomy (Structure) and Physiology (Functioning):
“Structure determines function.” Although Anatomy and Physiology may be studied in isolation one from another, they are truly inseparable sciences because function always reflects structure. That is, what a structure can do depends on its specific form. This is called the principle of complementarily of structure and function. This course will consistently stress this principle to help you understand the meaning of what you are learning. For any given structure, a description of its anatomy is accompanied by an explanation of its function; always emphasizing the structural characteristics contribute to and define that function.
Six levels of structural hierarchy:
Chemical Level (atoms and molecules), cellular, tissue, organ, organ-system, organism
Chemical Level
interaction of atoms and subatomic particles
(Matter is composed of Elements; smallest whole units of elements are atoms.)
(Two or more atoms held together by one or more bonds)
Cellular Level
smallest structural/functional living units of the body; specific sub-cellular structures called organelles make specialized contributions to the cell
Tissue Level
aggregates of cells (and any materials surrounding them) that work together to perform a particular function.
Organ Level
two or more tissue-types that associate with one another in a recognizable way to perform specific functions.
Organ-System Level (System Level)
several related organs that have one or more common function(s).
Organism Level
a living individual composed of multiple organ-systems.
Living organisms may be distinguished from non-living entities by six processes:
metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, reproduction
sum total of all chemical reactions in the body (includes anabolism: “build-up” or synthesis reaction as well as catabolism: “tear-down” or decomposition reactions. Most reactions are a combination of anabolic and catabolic reactions taking place sequentially; many reactions are exchange reactions.)
detection of changes in the internal/external environment with the ability to react to those changes.
of the organism, of its cells, or of fluids/substances over body surfaces.
increase in body size resulting from an increase in cellular size and/or number.
the process of cells becoming specialized from their non-specialized ancestors in order to perform some new, distinct task (The undifferentiated, non-specialized ancestor cells are referred to as stem cells.)
formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement; or the Production of a new individual.
Homeo = “sameness” + Stasis = “to stay” or “to stand” Literally: the condition of the body’s internal environment remaining more or less constant (the same). More appropriately: Homeostasis describes the dynamic equilibrium of the body’s internal environment by which it remains stable; that is, in relatively constant (and narrow) limits despite many changes in the external environment.
Considerations when dealing with Homeostasis:
Homeostasis is a central theme of human anatomy and physiology since it represents the balance of normal, healthy body activities in order to maintain controllable conditions within their very narrow range of ideal values. And Homeostasis is regulated by feedback systems
Three components of a feedback system:
Receptor, Control Center, Effector
monitors changes in a condition and sends impulses to a control center (usually the spinal cord, brain, or endocrine organ.)
Control center
receives information from the receptor, sets the range of values for that condition, and determines output.
body structure which receives output from the control center and produces a response.
Two types of feedback systems
Negative and Positive
Negative feedback system:
“The output reverses the input”. The result is to REVERSE the original change to the controlled condition; ie: If original input was a decrease in activity, then output will be to increase it. Conversely, if original input was an increase in activity, then output will be to decrease it. Another way of stating it is that there is an opposite directional change with negative feedback systems. The result of a negative feedback system should be to maintain the con trolled condition within its very narrow, ideal range. -- Examples: body temperature, blood pH, blood sugar levels, most hormone levels.
Positive feedback system:
“The output reinforces the input”. The result is to strengthen/reinforce the original change to the controlled condition. Since the original input is an increase in activity, then the output will be to increase that activity even further. Another way of stating it is that there is a same directional change with a positive feedbck systm. Examples: increasing levels of oxytocin during childbirth; blood-clotting mechanism; estrogen production during the pre-ovulatory portion of the ovarian cycle.
anatomical position
, referring to a specific stance for examination of the body. When in anatomical position, the body has face and toes forward, upper extremities are comfortably at the sides, and palms are facing forward. In this position, the body now has just two surfaces: anterior (aka ventral) and posterior (aka dorsal).
refers to the body or a body-part lying face down
refers to the body or a body-part lying face up.
Sagittal plane
separates the body into right and left portions
Midsagittal plane
separates the body/body part into equal right/left portions
Median plane
separates the body/body part into equal right/left portions
Parasagittal plane
separates the body into unequal right and left portions.
Coronal plane
separates the body/body-part into anterior and posterior portions.
Transverse plane
divides the body/body-part into superior and inferior portions.
Oblique plane
passes through the body/body-part at an angle
refers to a structure which is toward the head (aka cephalad)
refers to a structure which is toward the lowr part of the body (aka caudad)
nearer to or at the front of the body/body-part (aka ventral)
nearer to or at the back of the body/body-part (aka dorsal)
nearer to the midline of the body/body-part
farther away from the midline of the body/body-part
located between two structures
on the same side as another structure
on the opposite side of the body from another structure
nearer to the origin of a structure or to the attachment of a limb to the trunk
farther from the origin of a structure or from the attachment of a limb to the trunk
toward or on the surface of the body/body-part
Deep (Profundus)
away from the surface of the body/body-part
pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity
pertaining to the organs or to the covering of organs contained in body cavities
The Dorsal Body Cavity consists of
Cranial and Vertebral cavities
Cranial cavity
contains the brain
Vertebral (spinal) cavity
contains the spinal cord
The Ventral Body Cavity
This cavity has a physical partition, the diaphragm, separating it into two sub sections; and each of these two sub-sections is divided into two portions: the thoracic and pericardial cavities
Thoracic cavity
lying superior to the diaphragm
Pericardial cavity
contains the heart. The heart is covered by the visceral pericardium and the cavity is lined by parietal pericardium.
How many Pleural cavities are there? And what is it lined by?
there are two of these, each one containing a lung.
Each pleural cavity is lined by
the parietal pleura
each lung is covered by
visceral pleura.
this is NOT a cavity, but rather a region, or dividing structure, in the midline of the thoracic cavity which contains the esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, large blood vessels, nerves, and surrounds the pericardial cavity.
Abdominopelvic cavity
lying inferior to the diaphragm
Abdominal cavity contains what? And what are they covered by? Lined by?
contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small and large intestines, all of which are covered by visceral peritoneum and the cavity is lined by parietal peritoneum.
Pelvic cavity contains what? And is covered and lined by?
contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and a portion of the large intestine. These are covered by the visceral peritoneum and the cavity is lines by parietal peritoneum.
Abdominopelvic regions are used by whom?
anatomists to separate the abdominopelvic
Quadrants are used by? For what?
clinicians to indicate locations of body structures for diagnostic and surgical procedures.