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93 Cards in this Set

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heterotrophs
do not make thier own food
saprobes
get nutrients from non living organic matter like from soil
parasites
get nutrients from living organic matter like plants
budding
asexual reporduction, similar to bionarry fission
zygomycetes
fungi, not good to eat or digest
ex.rhizopus stolinifer. looks like dafodills
ascomycetes
sac fungi used for food production. aka. sacharomycetes
ex- penecillon, aspergillus (soy sauce)
basidiomycetes
club fungi, mushrooms, only one we can eat
ex. agaricus brunnescens
spores
aswxual cell (divides by itself) or can reproduce with annother cell (like a gamete)
like seeds
Mycelia
when the spores come together and it grows, like the roots, just adult spores
Hyphae
cells that braqnch off from mycelia, tubular cells, compounds together to make mycelia
Basidiospores
spores of basidiomytes HALPOID n
haploid mycelia
the mycelium that has only one neuculous, mate if compatible
compatible mating strain
in cytoplasmic fusion where haploid mating strains are compatible and fuse together
dikaryotic mycelium
diploid (2n) after the compatible mating strains fuse together
basidiomycota life cycle
-both sexual and asexual
-(n+n) forms at the gills
-goes through neuclear fusion and trusn diploid (2n)
-goes through meosis and is haploid (n)
-the spores are relased
Zygospore
DIPLOID (2n)
Zygosporangium
protective membrane around zygospore
Positive mating strain/negative mating strain
two strains of opposit charges are attracted to each other
Zycomycota Life Cycle
two compatible hypha joi together and form a young zygospore (n)
-neruclear fusion makes it diploid and a mature zygospore
-than through meiosis it become haploid again
- the spores are released and germinate to form mycelia
lichens
fungus + photosymthetic organism
- live togetehr closely
- mutalism, both benefit
- fungi helps it absorb nutrients while fungi gets some sugar
The three types of animal-like protists
Amoebiod, ciliated, flagellates
Mycorrhizae
fungi attaching to a plant or tree root
fungi gets sugar while the plant gets help absorbing nutrients
most plants and trees need the fungi to grow
protist differ from Prokaryots
have nucleous and organells
have chloroplasts
divide my meiosis and mitosis
have microtubuals and flagella
protist charictarisitcs
unicellular
autotrophic and heterotrophic (making own food)
microscopic cells-> seaweed
water molds/slime molds
protist
-aquatic saprobes
-some are parisites
-kill plants (plant pathogens)
-ex- potato mold
-produce extensive mycelia
-most like fungus
-can cause malaria (plasmodium)
Amoebiod
they are protists that change shape constantly
have Pseudopods (false feet)
Ciliated
ex- paramecium
goes through sexual reporduction (conjugation)
Flagelllates (example)
ex- trypanosome
Sporozoans
Parasitic
cause serious desieses
cryptosporidium through raw meat and cat fecies
algae example
euglenoids- not algea but they are photosynthetic
unicellular algae
-photosynthetic
golden, yellow green, diatoms, cocolithphores
multicellualr algae
mostly tropical
red, brown and green (green respembles plants)
Charictarisitics of animals (7)
-multicellular
-heterotrophic (don't make own food)
-eykarytos
-require oxygen
-reporduce sexually and asexually
-motile (moving) and one point
-develop from embryos
radial symmetry
cuts from the center like a circle
gut
reigion where food is digested and absrobed (like our stomach and small intestine)
acoelomate
has a gut cavity but no actual gut and no lining
Pseudocoelomate
fake gut, not lined
celomate
has a whole body cavity (coelem) and it is lined
larval stage
when sponges are motile (moving)
Sponges
-lower invertebrate
-no symmetry but sometimes radial
-acelomate (no gut)
-motile at larval
-take in oxygen and nutrients through pores
-AMOEBOID CELL GETS RID OF WASTE
-sexual
nematocysts
stuff that stings that Cindarians produce
Cnidarian
-lower invertebrate
-radial
-no gut (acelomate)
-produces nematocytes
-has NERVE NET to sense
-HYDROSTATIC SKELETON fills with water to keep shape
-sexual
cnidarian exaples & shapes
jelly fish (medusa)
corals (polyp)
Cephalized
have a body and head type of body organization
hermaphrodites
have both sexual parts but during reporduction- serve as only one type
Platyhelminthes
- Flatworms
-bilateral
-acoelomate (no gut)
-cephalized
-hermaphrodite
-can be cut in half and survive
Examples of Platyhelminthes
tapeworm and flukes- parasidic
Nematodes
-invertebrate
-round worm
-bilateral
-pshudocylomate gut
-complete digestive system
-can burrow in your body
cause heart worm in dogs
Exaple of Nematodes
ascarid
what does it mean to be round?
they have room to form a (kinda) real gut (but not quite)
Charictaristics of higher invertebrates (2)
- all evolved from celomate roundworms
-have a body cavity (true gut)
mantle
fleshy thing under the shell that helps to make the shell
radul
used for shredding food
mollusk
-higher invertebrate
-bilateral
-have shell and soft body
-a fleshy foot
-mantle and radula
exaples of Mollusc
octopus, snail, clams, oysters, muscels, cuttle fish, squid
setae
bistles to hear
crop and gizzard
an annalids gut
annelids
-higher invertebrates
-bilateral
-segemented body (like the ridges on a worm)
-setae
-crop and gizzard
exaple of an annelid
earthworm
cephalothorax
head and body fused together
arthopods
- have the biggest number of species
-harder outer skeleton
-jointed appendages (arms and legs)
-respritory structures
-specialised sensory sturucture
-division of labor
examples of Arthopods (4 groups and more examples)
Trilobites- extinct
chelicerate- spiders, mites, scorpions
crostaceans- crabs, shrimp, barnicals, lobsters, crayfish
uniramians- insectes, centepides, milipides
chelicerates
-spides, socrpions...
-originated on sea but now on land
MALPHIGHIAN TUBULET- helps to absrob oxygen
crustaceans
marine habitiat
echinoderms
-radial BUT bilateral features
-most marine
-body wall has spines or plates of calcium carbonate
-no brain
-DEUTEROSTOMES- how they divide cells from embryos
-water vascular system
examples of echinoderms
sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sand dollars.
exaples of simple chordates
tunicit (urochordata)
lancelete (cephalochordata)
Notochord
what supports chordate body
-will develop into vertebrate
dorsal nerve cord
nervous system
develops into spinal cord
pharynx
gills
chordate charictaristics
have notocord
-have a dorsal nerve cord
-embryos have pharynx
-embryos have tail that extends past anus
amnion
sac that surrounds the embryo fluid and embryo
amnionic cavity
space or fluid between the amnion and embryo
allantois
collects waste
part of the ambillicol cord
chorion
shell that gikds everything else together ONLY IN BRIDS
bird yolk sac
keeps nutrients
mammal yolk sac
VESTIGAL because we dont use it
-we use the ambilicoll cord
Mammal reproduction
monotremes (platapus)
Placental (humans)
Marsupials (kangaroos)
Agnathans
-fish with no jaws
-ectotherm
-2 heart chambers
-scales as covering
-cartilage skeleton
Agnathans example
lamprey
hagfish
Chondrichthyes
-fish with jaws
-ectotherm
-2 heart chambers
-scales as covering
-cartilage skeleton
chondrichthyes ex
sharks
skates
rays
osteichthyes
-fish
-ecto
-scales
-BONE
osteichthyes example
trout
haddock
catfish
Amphibians
-ecto
-3 HEART chambers
-bone
amphibians exaples
salamanders
frogs
toads
caecilians
reptiles
-ecto
-3 heart chambers (4 for crocodiles)
- scales
-bone
reptiles example
turtles
snakes
lizzards
crocodiles
alligators
aves
-birds
-ENDO
-4 heart chambers
-covered in feathers
-bone
aves examples
flightless birds
birds of prey
water birds
mammals
-endo
-4 heart chambers
-HAIR/FUR
-bone
mammal examples
-monotremes
-marsupials
-placentals
placodermi
-jawed armored fish
EXTINCT