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37 Cards in this Set

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List 7 Veterinary Compounding Label Requirements.
1) Name and address of the attending veterinarian, 2) Date dispensed, 3) Medically active ingredients, 4) Identity of animal(s) to be treated (i.e. species, class, group, or individual animals), 5) Directions for use, 6) Cautionary statements, if needed, and 7) Slaughter-withdraw times and / or milk withholding times, if needed.
Why should acetaminophen not be administered to cats?
Cats have a deficiency of the glucuronyl transferase enzyme required for acetaminophen metabolism, therefore death may occur.
How do species differences in hydration during sickness influence dosing considerations?
Some species maintain suitable hydration during sickness, while others do not. Hydration alters drug distribution within their bodies as well as drug metabolism and excretion.
How does urine pH, which may influence drug excretion rates, differ between herbivores and carnivores?
The urinary pH of herbivores is slightly alkaline, while that of carnivores is slightly acidic.
How does a dog’s gastrointestinal transit time compare with that of a human?
Dogs have a shorter gastrointestinal transit time than do humans (2 hrs vs 4 hrs, respectively).
How does a dog’s intestinal villi compare with that of a human?
Dogs have longer intestinal villi, which provide more surface area for absorption.
How does a dog’s bile salt secretion compare with that of a human? And what implication does this difference have on the absorption of drugs having poor water solubility?
Dogs have higher bile salt secretion, which increases the absorption of some drugs having poor water solubility.
How does the pH in the intestine of a dog compare with that of humans? And what effect does this have on the absorption of drugs that are weak bases?
Dogs have a higher intestinal pH, which leads to better absorption of drugs that are weak bases.
How does the basal acid secretion of dogs compare with that of humans?
Dogs (and probably cats too) have lower basal acid secretion than people.
What special public health consideration must be accounted for in selecting a drug for a food-producing animal?
It may be necessary to select a drug having a short half-life to ensure it is readily eliminated from the animal prior to market.
What are BCP VetChews?
BCP VetChews are soft, easy to chew, medicated pet treats, which are custom compounded to the veterinarian’s specifications.
What is one of the most common feline behavioral disorders?
Urine spraying is one of the most common feline behavioral disorders.
What two medications are routinely advertised by veterinary compounding pharmacies for correcting pet behavioral problems?
Transdermal formulations of both buspirone and amitriptyline are routinely advertised by veterinary compounding pharmacies.
How does the transdermal absorption of amitriptyline in cats compare with oral absorption?
Transdermal absorption of amitriptyline is poor compared with oral absorption.
What commercially-available insulin source most closely matches canine insulin?
Porcine insulin has merely three amino acid differences and is structurally closest to canine insulin.
What, now discontinued, insulin source most closely matches feline insulin?
Bovine protamine zinc insulin (PZI), having only one amino acid difference (at site A18), is the closest match to feline insulin.
How does insulin dosing for felines differ depending on whether the insulin source is synthetic human insulin versus bovine PZI?
Most cats can be regulated with only one dose per day of bovine protamine zinc insulin, as opposed to the twice-a-day routine many cats require when using synthetic human insulin.
List six common routes of Veterinary Administration.
1) Oral, 2) Parenteral, 3) Implants, 4) Intrammary, 5) Topical, and 6) Body Cavity
List seven categories of common foods which are poisonous or dangerous to dogs and why.
1) Alcohol (toxic), 2) Chocolate (CNS and Cardiac toxicity from Theobromine), 3) Coffee & Tea (Caffeine), 4) Ham Fat Trimmings (Pancreatitis), 5) Grapes & Raisins (Renal Damage), 6) Milk & Dairy Products (>50% of dogs are lactose intolerant) and 7) Onions & Garlic (Hemolytic Anemia from Thiosulfate)
What zoonotic disease are rats infamous for transmitting to humans?
Plague
What zoonotic disease do deer ticks transmit?
Lyme Disease
What is a “Zoonotic” Disease?
Zoonotic disease refers to diseases that can be passed from animals, whether wild or domesticated, to humans.
What are five common means of zoonotic disease transmission?
1) Contact w/ animal waste, 2) Direct contact w/ infected animal, 3) Drinking water containing parasite eggs, 4) Consumption of contaminated animal flesh (e.g. tapeworms), and 5) Insect Vectors (fleas, ticks, etc.)
What zoonotic disease can elephants transmit to humans?
Tuberculosis
Describe Anthrax.
Anthrax is a bacterial disease of warm blooded animals – particularly cattle and sheep – that is transmissible to humans. It causes severe skin and lung damage.
Describe Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive, fatal disease of the nervous system of domestic animals, transmitted by eating food infected with BSE prion proteins.
Describe Lyme Disease
Lyme disease is an acute bacterial infection which is usually marked by skin rash, fever, fatigue and chills. Left untreated, it may cause damage to the heart and nervous system.
Describe Q-Fever.
Q-Fever is a bacterial disease that is marked by high fever, chills, and muscle pain. It is seen in North America, Europe, and parts of Africa, and may be spread by tick bites or by drinking raw milk.
What zoonotic disease are bats infamous for carrying? Of what category of disease do they carry several forms affecting humans?
Bats are important rabies carriers, and also carry several other viral diseases that can affect humans.
What types of zoonotic diseases might cats carry? [Name four specific diseases and one broader category.]
Cats may carry the causative organisms for plague, anthrax, cowpox, tapeworm, and many bacterial infections.
List five zoonotic diseases dogs may carry.
Dogs may carry plague, tapeworm, rabies, Rocky
Mountain Spotted Fever, and Lyme disease.
List three zoonotic diseases horses may carry.
Horses may carry anthrax, rabies, and Salmonella infections.
What types of zoonotic diseases might cattle carry? [Name five specific diseases and two broader categories.]
Cattle may carry the organisms that cause anthrax, European tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, tapeworm, Salmonella infections, and many bacterial and viral diseases.
What zoonotic disease are pigs best known for carrying? Name three other zoonotic diseases they may carry.
Pigs are best known for carrying tapeworm, but may also carry a large number of other infections including anthrax, influenza, and rabies.
What types of zoonotic diseases might sheep and goats carry? [Name three specific diseases and two broader categories.]
Sheep and goats may carry rabies, European tickborne encephalitis, Salmonella infections, and many bacterial and viral diseases.
List two zoonotic diseases rabbits may carry.
Rabbits may carry plague and Q-Fever.
List five zoonotic diseases birds may carry.
Birds may carry 1) Campylobacteriosis , 2) Chlamydia psittaci, 3) Pasteurella multocida, 4) Histoplasma
capsulatum, 5) Salmonellosis, and others.