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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the forms of mechanical energy that the ear converts to electrical energy.
vibration and acceleration or deceleration and gravitational changes
Vibration is converted to an electrical signal for ____.
Acceleration/decelleration signals are converted to electrical signals containing what type of info?
vestibular and balance
Name the three main divisions to the ear.
external, middle, and inner
What does the external ear contain?
tympanic membran and ear canal
What is the function of the external ear?
collect sounds
What is in the middle ear?
eustachian tube, mastoid air cells and ossicles
What is the function of the middle ear?
transmit vibration in air to the inner ear
What is in the inner ear?
vestibulocochlear organ
What is the function of the inner ear?
interpret different vibrations as nerve impulses and send them to the brain
Which bones does the temporal bone articulate wtih?
parietal, sphenoid, zygoma, frontal, maxilla, and mandibular
Name the entrance to the ear canal.
external auditory meatus
What divides the skull's middle and posterior cranial fossae?
ridges of the petrous portion of the temporal bone on the ineterior aspect of the skull
Which muscles originate at the styoid process?
stylohyoid m, stylopharyngeus m, styloglossus m
What exits throught he stylomastoid foramen?
branchial motor (SVE) component of CNVII
Name the 4 bony parts of the temporal tone.
squamosa (zygomatic process), mastoid, petrous and tympanic
Name the major sutures of the temporal bone.
tympanosquamous suture line (lateral portion)
typanomastoid suture line
petrotypmanic suture line
What does the appendage of the exteranal ear do?
collect sound
What is the outer rim of the external ear called?
What is the part of the ear without cartilage called?
What does the ear cartilage receive oxygen and nutrients from?
overlying perichondrium
If the cartilage is struck hard enough to cause a hematoma between the cartilage and perichondrium what can result?
the cartilage will die and reduce in size (cauliflower ears)
Name the extrinsic muscle of the ear. What innervates them?
superior, anterior and posterior auricular muscles
What artery supplies the external ear?
posterior auricular artery and superficial temporal artery off the external carotid artery
Name the lymphatic drainage of the external ear.
anterior (superficial) parotid, psterior auricualr, retromandibular and superficial cervical nodes which drain into the deep cervical lymph node chain
What innervates the external ear?
branch of the CNV3 (auriculotemporal nerve)
cervical plexus (C2,3) viea the greater auricular nerve does the greatest area
CN VII, IX, X do a small part
What does the lateral 2/3 of the ear canal contain?
cerumen glands (wax glands) and vibrissae (hair)
Lateral 2/3 of ear-cartilagenous or bone?
medial 1/3?
What is Fissures of Santorini?
a deficiency of the ear, crevices or cracks in the cartilaginous canal anteriorly
What can occur if there is an ear infection in Fissures of Santorini?
infrection can be spread through the fissures to the preauricular or parotid region
Innervation of the top portion of the canal is by which nerve?
What innervates the bottom of the ear canal? What can this reflex when the ear is manipulated?
a small branch fromt he vagus nerve, Arnold's nerve
cough reflex
Describe the tympanic membrane (ear drum).
cone-shaped, dime size, thin membrane
Name the 3 layers of the tympanic membrane.
squamous epithelium (latera), febrous layer w/ circular and radial fibers and mucous membrane (medial)
What is the name of the fibrous ring that attaches the drum tot he canal?
Name the two divisions of the eardrum.
pars tensa, pars flaccida
Which part of the eardrum is fibrous?
pars tensa
What is myringotomy?
when incisions in the eardrum (myringotomy) are made to place tubes (to equalize pressure) through the membrane
Which part of the ear is often a site of cholesteatoma? What is cholesteatoma?
pars flaccida
stratified squamous epithelial is misplaced within the typmainc cavity, often starts as invagination at the pars flaccidea where a bibrous layer is lacking
Name the ossicles of the middle ear.
malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup)
Name the 3 portions of the middle ear.
epitympanum (top), mesotympanum (middle), and hypotympanum (lower)
What is the lateral part of the epitympanum?
hard bone, the scutum; contains heads of ossicles and leads to mastoid air cells
What does the mesotympanum contain?
promontory, tympanic plexus, chorda tympani, main portion of ossicles, oval (vestibular) window and round (cochlear) window
What is close to the hypotympanum?
carotid artery and jugular bulb
What is the opening of the middle ear?
eustachian tube
What is the function of the eustachian tube?
equilibrates pressure of the closed middle ear w/ the air pressure in the nasal pharynx only during swallowing
The eustachian tube slants from the ____ to the ____.
middle ear to nasopharynx
Which muscles pull on the cartilage of the auditory tube to transiently open the auditory tube during swallowing?
salpinopharyngeus (medial) and tensor (veli) palatini (lateral) muscles
What type of pressure develops in the middle ear if the eustachian tube is not transiently pulled open by muscles with each swallow?
negative pressure
What does the negative pressure in the middle ear do?
pull mucous (along w/ virus and bacteria) and any fluid into the middle ear
The middle ear connects to the ____ with ear swallow. What is the clinical significance of this?
infrans shouldn't be given a bottle while flat ont heir backs
What is the roof of the middle ear?
bone of middle cranial fossa or tegmen
What makes up the floor of the middle ear?
internal jugular vein confluence or bulb
What binds the middle ear medially?
promontory (first turn of cochlea) w/ tympanic plexus, fenestra vestibuli (oval window) and fenestra cochlea (round window)
What is located laterally int he middle ear?
eardrum and chorda tympani nerve
What is located anteriorly in the middle ear?
exit for eustachian tube and internal carotid artery
What is located posteriorly in the middle ear?
aditus to mastoid chamber or air cells (honeycomb like)
What is otosclerosis?
newly formed bone around the stapes foot plate leads to loss of vibration and thus progressive conduction deafness
Name the 2 muscles of the middle ear.
tensor tympani and stapedius
What does the lenticular process of the incus articulate with?
head of stapes
What does the neck of the malleus attach to?
tensor tympani m
What runs medial to the neck of the malleus?
chorda tympani
What is the smallest bone int he body?
What does the neck of the stapes attach to?
stapedius m
What does the footplate attah to?
oval window
Which nerve innervates the tensor tympani muscle?
What runs parallel to the tensor tympani m?
eustachian tube
What innervates the stapedius m?
What reflexively happens to the middle ear muscles when presented w/ a loud sound?
they contract, tightening the ossicular chain and protecting the inner ear from excessiv mechanical energy
What is the function of the muscles of the inner ear?
protect from loud noises
What arteries supply the middle ear?
external and internal caroid arteries
Name the branches of the external crotid artery that supply the middle ear.
stylomastoid artery-branch of post. auricular
inferior tympanic A-branch of ascending pharyngeal
anterior tympanic-branch of internal maxillary
petrosal-branch of middle meningeal
Name the branch of the internal carotid that supplies the middle ear.
Sensory innervation to the middle ear is via ____.
What is the entrance from the middle ear to the mastoid cells called?
Name the areas of the temporal bone where mastoid cells are located.
squamosal and mastoid portions
There is a correlation between recurrent ear infections and ____. The more infections, the more ____.
mastoid aeration
sclerotic int he mastoid
Name the three types of chambers.
pneumatized (air cells), sclerotic diploic (marrow) and mixed
Where is the inner ear located?
petrous portion of temporal bone
Name the 3 parts of the inner ear.
otic capsule, osseous or perilymphatic labyrinth, and membranous or endolymphatic labyrinth
What ist he outer bony portion of the inner ear called?
otic capsule
Name the 3 parts of the osseous or perilymphatic labyrinth.
cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals
What is the cochlea?
hearing coil, contains final receptor organ in the cochlear duct
What is the vestibule? What are the 2 membranous structures in contains?
utricle and saccule
What is the semicircular canals for? What does it contain?
contain fluid, endolymp
What does endolymp do?
converts angular accelearation to a fluid movement
What is Meniere's disease? Describe the symptoms.
thought to be due to endolymphatic hydrops (excess production of endolymphatic fluid)
vertigo, nausea, tinnitus and progressive deafness
Describe the process of hearing.
sound vibrations set eardrum in motion
this vibrates the ossicular chain of the middle ear
these ossicles set in motion the perilymph
perilymph travels around cochlea which deflects a basement membrane
attached to BM are terminal nerve endings of cochlear nerve
the organ of Corti contains cells which depolarize and transmit nerve signal
What does the cochlear duct surround?
organ of Corti, semicircular canals, utricle and sccule and endolymphatic sac
What divides the internal auditory canal into superior and inferior portions?
transverse crest
What nerve exit the internal auditory canal?
With regards to the internal auditory canal
posterosuperiorly it contains ____
posterior inferiorly ___
anteriosuperiorly ____
anterioinferorly ____
ps-superior vestibular N
pi-inferior vestibular n
as-facial n
ai-cochlear n
What is acoustic neuroma?
a benign Schwann cell tumor which myelinate CN VIII
What can be disrupted by acousitic neuroma?
acoustic and vestibular functions as well as functions of CNVII