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32 Cards in this Set

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Isotonic loss or gain:
serum Na+ normal
Hypotonic disorders:
hyponatremia always present; ICF expansion
Isotonic loss:
Normal, decrease TBNa+, decrease TBW. Adult diarrhea, loss of whole blood
Isotonic gain:
Normal, increase TBNa+, increase TBW. Excessive isotonic (normal) saline.
Hypertonic loss of Na+:
Decreased, double decrease TBNa+, decrease TBW. Loop diuretics, Addison's disease, 21-hydroxylase deficiency
Gain of Water:
Decreased, TBNa+, double increase TBW. SIADH.
Hypotonic gain of Na+:
Decreased, increase TBNa+, double increase TBW. Right-sided heart failure, CIrrhosis, Nephrotic syndrome
Pitting endema states:
right-sided heart failure, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome
Hypertonic disorder:
hypernatremia or hyperglycemia; ICF contraction
Hypotonic loss of Na+:
Increased, deacrease TBNa+, double decrease TBW. Osmotic diuresis: glucose, sweating, infant diarrhea.
Loss of Water:
Increased, TBNa+, double decrease TBW. Insensible water loss: fever, Diabetes insipidus
Hypertonic gain of Na+:
Increased, double increase TBNa+, increase TBW, infusion of a Na+ containing antibiotic, Infusion of NaHCO3
Hyperglycemia:
Increase, increase glucose, Decrease Na+ (dilutional effect). Diabetic ketoacidosis, Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma
Hypokalemia:
ECG shows U wave
Hyperkalemia:
ECG shows peaked T waves
Increase AG metabolic acidosis:
anions of acid replace HCO3-
Normal AG metabolic acidosis:
CI- anions replace HCO3-
Salicylate intoxication:
often mixture of primary metabolic acidosis and primary respiratory alkalosis
Pitting endema:
transudate; increase hydrostatic pressure and/or decrease oncotic pressure
T-cell cytokines stimulate:
Fibroblasts to synthesize glycosaminoglycans
Increase AG metabolic acidosis:
anions of acid replace HCO3-
Normal AG metabolic acidosis:
CI- anions replace HCO3-
Salicylate intoxication:
often mixture of primary metabolic acidosis and primary respiratory alkalosis
Pitting endema:
transudate; increase hydrostatic pressure and/or decrease oncotic pressure
T-cell cytokines stimulate:
Fibroblasts to synthesize glycosaminoglycans
Amniotic fluid embolism:
abrupt onset dyspnea, hypotension, bleeding (DIC)
Decompression sickness:
nitrogen gas bubbles acclude vessel lumens
Pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism:
complications of scuba diving
Hypovolemic shock:
decrease CO, decrease LVEDP, increase PVR, increase TPR, decrease MVO2
Cardiogenic shock:
increase CO, increase LVEDP, increase PVR, increase TPR, decrease MVO2
Septic shock:
most often caused by sepsis due to E. coli
Septick shock (initial phase):
increase CO, decrease LEVDP, decrease PVR, decrease TPR, increase MVO2